Nightclubs are high-risk settings for overuse of alcohol and other drugs. In a July publication in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, collaborators from the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), the University of California San Francisco, and Klein Buendel reported the outcomes of their intervention to protect nightclub patrons from substance abuse and harmful consequences.
Nightlife Safety Plans (NSP) is a group-based, tablet app-delivered intervention designed for groups of patrons arriving at nightclubs together. NSP encourages social groups to recognize early indicators of risk and take actions steps to de-escalate risky situations, such as physical and sexual aggression, through peer influence and other methods. The intervention was designed around a simple mnemonic – the three O’s: Outreach, Options, and Out:
Outreach: “provide outreach by approaching the friend and checking in, using nonconfrontational approaches”
Options: “provide options to a group member if a problem is identified”
Out: “know when the group should get out of the club to avoid further problems”
A total of 959 people from 352 social groups participated in the intervention at 41 different electronic music dance events at nightclubs in San Francisco, California. The measures (including breath samples for blood alcohol concentration and oral fluid samples for drug use), methods, analyses, results, discussion, and limitations are detailed in the publication.
In summary, intervening in the right place at the right time with peer influence strategies proved to be effective. The authors report that the NSP app appeared to increase protective actions to keep group members safe from overuse of alcohol and other drugs in these high-risk environments.
This research was funded by a grant to the Prevention Research Center at PIRE from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA022331; Dr. Brenda Miller, Principal Investigator). Authors of the publication include Dr. Hilary Byrnes, Dr. Brenda Miller, Dr. Mark Johnson, and Veronica Rogers from PIRE; Dr. Beth Bourdeau from the University of California San Francisco; and Dr. David Buller and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel. The NSP tablet app was developed by Klein Buendel’s Creative Team.
Ultraviolet Radiation and the Fading of Colored Tattoos
In a recent publication in Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, authors from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and Klein Buendel examine a case and describe how ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may affect tattoos by causing abnormal healing, premature fading, scabbing, and scarring.
The case under review revolved around a male patient with Fitzpatrick skin type III who presented concerns about a colored tattoo that had visibly undergone premature fading. In addition to a physical exam, the patient’s outdoor habits, medical history, and sun safety behaviors were also documented. The patient had visible uneven distribution of red and yellow pigment in the tattoo on his arm. The full report, discussion, and conclusion can be found in the publication.
Although tattoo fading is a multifaceted
process, excessive UVR exposure can be a preventable factor. By taking simple
measures such as wearing sunscreen greater than SPF 30, wearing sun protective
clothing, and seeking shade, individuals can minimize unnecessary sun exposure
to protect their skin and tattoos.
This project was funded by a grant and a
supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA206569; Dr. Barbara Walkosz
and Dr. Robert Dellavalle, Multiple Principal Investigators). Paper authors
include Dr. Cristian Gonzalez, Dr. Chandler Rundle, and Dr. Adrian Pona from the
University of Colorado School of Medicine; Dr. Barbara Walkosz from Klein
Buendel; and Dr. Robert Dellavalle from the University of Colorado School of
Medicine and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Rocky Mountain Regional VA
Medical Center Dermatology Service.
Melanoma Receptor Variation in a New Mexico Population
Dr. David Buller, KB Senior Scientist and Director of Research, is a co-author on a paper published recently in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. The paper examines the Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) in a multicultural New Mexican population. MC1R is a risk factor for developing melanoma skin cancer because it contributes to skin pigmentation. The paper’s lead author is Dr. Kirsten White from the University of New Mexico. Other co-authors are from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, the University of Utah, and the University of New Mexico.
Specifically, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MC1R and their association with race and ethnicity, skin type, and perceived cancer risk were evaluated by genotyping MC1R in 191 primary care clinic patients in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A full description of the methods, results, conclusions, and limitations of the research can be found in the publication.
Overall, the authors concluded that a specific variant of interest in MC1R may not be a risk factor for melanoma among New Mexican Hispanics, and that genetic risk cannot be inferred from Northern European populations directly to non-European populations.
STAC-T: A Bystander Bullying Intervention for Middle Schools
Nationally, 20.8% of students age 12-18 report being bullied at school and 11.5% report being cyberbullied (1). Bullying peaks in middle school with 26% of students reporting being a target of bullying (1). Among middle schoolers, bullying victimization is associated with a variety of mental health problems including anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts. In addition, negative consequences linked with bullying extend to students who observe bullying (2). Student bystanders are also at increased risk for mental health problems, such as helplessness, isolation, and guilt. With 8 out of 10 students witnessing bullying (2), students need to know how to appropriately intervene.
The goal of Klein
Buendel’s new Phase I STTR project is to begin to develop and test the
feasibility of a middle school intervention to reduce bullying and its negative
consequences. The project is being led by Dr. Aida
Midgett (Principal Investigator) and Dr. Diana Doumas (Co-Investigator) of
Boise State University, and Dr. Valerie Myers (Co-Investigator) of Klein
Buendel. The project is entitled “Translation of an In-Person Brief, Bystander
Bullying Intervention (STAC) into a Technology-Based Program”.
Research has shown that bystanders can stop bullying by intervening
(3, 4). Yet, most students do not intervene to defend targets because they do
not know what to do (5). Comprehensive, school-wide
bullying programs can be effective (6), but time- and labor-intensive resources
required for program implementation pose significant barriers for schools,
particularly in low-income and rural communities,
which can reduce program uptake. To reduce these barriers, Dr. Midgett
developed a brief bullying bystander intervention, using four strategies: “Stealing the show,”
“Turning it over,” “Accompanying others,” and “Coaching
compassion” (STAC) (7). STAC has been shown to be effective in reducing
bullying perpetration (8,9) and victimization (8) and negative mental health
consequences for bystanders who witness bullying (10-15).
interventions reduce implementation barriers, in-person programs still require training
and delivery by school personnel, placing significant demands on schools. The product developed in this Phase I
project is a technology-based, brief bystander bullying intervention (STAC-T)
that can impact current bullying prevention approaches by: (a) significantly
reducing implementation barriers for middle schools, particularly those in
low-income and rural communities that can face educational, social, and health
disparities; (b) training bystanders to effectively intervene, reducing
bullying while simultaneously improving the mental health of bystanders; and
(c) improving the program sustainability potential at the middle school level
when bullying behavior typically reaches its peak.
This research project is funded by a grant
from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities at the
National Institutes of Health (MD014943; Dr. Aida Midgett, Principal
National Center for Education Statistics. Student Reports of Bullying: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. U.S. Department of Education;2016. NCES 2017-015.
Rivers I, Poteat VP, Noret N, Ashurst N. Observing bullying at school: the mental health implications of witness status. Sch Psychol Q. 2009;24(4):211-223.
Salmivalli C, Voeten M, Poskiparta E. Bystanders matter: associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in classrooms. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2011;40(5):668-676.
Padgett S, Notar CE. Bystanders are the key to stopping bullying. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 2013;1(2):33-41.
Hutchinson M. Exploring the impact of bullying on young bystanders. Educational Psychology in Practice. 2012;28(4):425-442.
Gaffney H, Ttofi MM, Farrington DP. Evaluating the effectiveness of school-bullying prevention programs: an updated meta-analytical review [published online ahead of print July 20]. Aggr Violent Behav. 2018 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.07.001
Midgett A, Doumas D, Sears D, Lundquist A, Hausheer R. A bystander bullying psychoeducation program with middle school students: a preliminary report. Professional Counselor. 2015;5(4):486-500.
Midgett A, Doumas DM, Johnston AD. Establishing school counselors as leaders in bullying curriculum delivery:Evaluation of a brief, school-wide bystander intervention. Professional School Counseling. 2017;21(1):1-9.
Midgett A, Doumas DM, Trull R, Johnson J. Training students who occasionally bully to be peer advocates: is a bystander intervention effective in reducing bullying behavior? Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling. 2017;3(1):1-13.
Moran M, Midgett A, Doumas DM, Porchia S, Moody S. A mixed method evaluation of a culturally adapted, brief, bullying bystander intervention for middle school students. Under review
Doumas DM, Midgett A, Watts AD. The impact of a brief, bullying bystander intervention on internalizing symptoms: Is gender a moderator of intervention effects? [published online ahead of print February 14]. Sch Psychol Int. 2019 doi: 10.1177/0143034319830149
Watts A, Doumas DM, Midgett A. The efficacy of a brief, bystander bullying intervention on alcohol use among high school students. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling. In press
Midgett A, Doumas DM. The impact of a brief, bullying bystander intervention on depressive symptoms. Journal of Counseling and Development. In press
Midgett A, Doumas DM, Trull R. Evaluation of a bystander bullying intervention program for elementary school students. Professional School Counselor. 2018;20(1):172-183.
Midgett A, Doumas DM, Trull R, Johnston A. A randomized controlled study evaluating a brief, bystander bullying intervention with junior high school students. Journal of School Counseling. 2017;15
Economic Evaluation of Adopting Occupational Sun Protection Policies
In a recent
publication in the Journal of
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Klein Buendel investigators and their
colleagues discuss the economic evaluation of an intervention promoting
adoption of occupational sun protection actions by Colorado public-sector
intervention, Sun Safe Workplaces (SSW), was a two-year randomized field trial
promoting employer adoption of sun safety policy and providing training in
personal sun protection for outdoor workers. The trial included 98 local Colorado government
organizations such as municipalities, counties, and special districts (public
organizations providing water, sanitation, parks and recreation, and fire protection).
SSW intervention costs were organized into two components: “delivery” costs and
“action” costs. Delivery costs were incurred to directly implement and maintain
the SSW intervention and included costs of both project staff and the
participating worksites. Action costs were incurred by the worksites themselves
for implementing the sun protection actions.
demonstrated the interactions of cost and implementation that explain — and hopefully
guide — the adoption of and investment in occupational sun safety. The SSW
intervention was also successful in extending the adoption of sun protection
actions among intervention worksites at a cost per employee that is comparable
to other worksite health interventions.
analysis was funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute at the
National Institutes of Health (CA134705; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Barbara
Walkosz, Multiple Principal Investigators). The paper’s lead author is Dr. Richard
Meenan from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Oregon. Additional
authors include Dr. David Buller, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Ms. Mary Buller, Ms.
Rachel Eye, and Ms. Savanna Olivas from Klein Buendel; and Dr. Allan Wallis
from the University of Colorado Denver.
Michael L. Hecht, Ph.D., is the co-president of REAL Prevention LLC. He currently works with Klein Buendel Senior Scientist, Dr. David Buller, on a project entitled, “Feasibility of a Mobile Parent-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use by High School Seniors.” The Phase II SBIR research project is funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA025293; Dr. Michael Hecht, Principal Investigator).
The program aims to provide an efficient, engaging and effective means to enhance parents’ ability to reduce prevalence of alcohol use and consequences, and other substance use. The program, called Parenting Now (PN), is adapted from the evidence-based Parent Handbook and includes a brief, interactive, self-paced, web-based curriculum for parents of non-college bound high-school-aged adolescents. KB will develop the PN program, which was previously tested in a Phase I trial, and it will include core and optional modules in order to target parents based on their communication style. Parents will be able to customize their experience by choosing or clicking through the optional content. Results will help prepare PN for dissemination through D.A.R.E. America’s new high school program as well as REAL Prevention’s other community-based partners, such as 4-H and Planned Parenthood.
In addition to substance abuse prevention research, Dr. Hecht specializes in developing and evaluating culturally grounded, narrative health messages to engage diverse communities. Through his work on an R01 in the 1990s, called “keepin’ it REAL” (kiR), Dr. Hecht co-founded REAL Prevention and has disseminated and implemented the program in all 50 states and 53 other countries. As co-president of REAL Prevention, Dr. Hecht provides training, consulting, support and evaluation services to organizations interested in adopting of kiR or developing new interventions.
Dr. Hecht earned his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois and is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Pennsylvania State University. He has won numerous awards, including the Gerald R. Philips Award for Distinguished Applied Communication Scholarship, two Distinguished Scholarship Awards for the International and Intercultural Division of the National Communication Association, and the Article of the Year Award for SIETAR. Additionally, Dr. Hecht has served on NIH’s Community-Level Health Promotion Review Group, including being selected as its chair, as well as on numerous editorial boards in communication and other fields.
On September 26, Klein Buendel helped sponsor the 2019 Denver
Mayor’s Diversity and Inclusion Awards. The
event was themed “Together for the Ages” and hosted by the Denver
Commission on Aging for Denver Mayor Michael Hancock. Dr. Barbara Walkosz,
KB Senior Scientist, is an appointed member of the Denver Commission on Aging.
By 2030, one in four residents of the city of Denver will be over 60 years of age. The Denver Commission on Aging helps to make Denver the best possible community for older adults through outreach, communication and advocacy, including:
Advocating for their rights and concerns
Empowering older adults through dissemination of information and sharing community resources
Monitoring and recommending legislation and proposed policy changes affecting older adults
The Mayor’s Diversity and
Inclusion Awards is an annual program of the agency for Human Rights
& Community Partnerships (HRCP). HRCP is the umbrella agency for nine
offices and ten commissions that work to create a more just and equitable
Denver. Through advocacy, capacity building, collaboration, community
engagement, and direct services HRCP works to create lasting change for
Denver’s residents. This includes ensuring that people from all corners of
the Denver community community are empowered and supported with the innate
knowledge that diverse perspectives, skills, and resources strengthen the
foundation for lasting solutions.
Inclusivity is the cornerstone of HRCP’s work. They strive
to give voices to the voiceless and to create a world class city where everyone
Mayor Michael B. Hancock
and the community commissioners honored 10 individuals or organizations with the
2019 Mayor’s Diversity and Inclusion Awards.
Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel Senior
Scientist and Director of Research, presented recent work by his research team at
the Tenth European Society for Prevention Research (EUSPR) Conference and
Members’ Meeting in Ghent, Belgium in September. His presentation, “Effects of
an Online Responsible Vendor Training for Recreational Cannabis Stores on Sales
to Pseudo-intoxicated Customers: Need for Increased Deterrence,” was coauthored
by Dr. Gill Woodall, Mr. Andrew Grayson, Ms. Sierra Svendsen, and Ms. Mary
Buller from Klein Buendel; and Dr. Robert Saltz from the Pacific Institute for
Research and Evaluation.
The advent of recreational cannabis in Canada,
Uruguay, and several U.S. states raises the risk of polysubstance-impaired
driving. In alcohol markets, training in responsible sales practices is an
intervention to reduce sales to intoxicated patrons and thus prevent impaired
driving and other harms. Similar training may benefit communities with
recreational cannabis sales.
An online responsible marijuana vendor (RMV) training,
Train To Tend, was developed with input from state regulators and store
personnel. Among its five modules, learning elements taught store personnel to
recognize signs of alcohol impairment and intoxication, refuse sales, and
understand the risks of driving under the influence of cannabis. A sample of 150
recreational cannabis stores in Colorado, Oregon, and Washington State, USA
were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, half of which were randomly
assigned to use the RMV training. Stores were posttested using a pseudo-intoxicated
patron (PiP) protocol in which confederate buyers feigned obvious signs of
Sales of cannabis to PiPs were refused at only
16 of 144 stores across the three states. There was no difference in refusal
rates between intervention and control stores or between stores that used the
RMV training or not. In 11 visits, store personnel commented on the buyers’
behavior or expressed concern/suspicion about buyers but sold to them anyway.
Training in responsible sales practices alone
did not appear to reduce sales to intoxicated customers. Legal deterrence from
making these sales may be insufficient or nonexistent for store management to
support adherence to this responsible sales practice. Regulatory actions (such
as swift, severe, and certain penalties) may be needed to increase perceived
risk with such sales to achieve
research was sponsored by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse at
the National Institutes of Health (DA038933; Dr. David Buller, Principal
Investigator). Train To Tend was programmed by the Creative Team at Klein
Three Klein Buendel researchers were part of a
team that gave two presentations at the Tenth European Society for Prevention
Research (EUSPR) Conference and Members’ Meeting in Ghent, Belgium in September.
Dr. David Buller, Dr. W. Gill Woodall, and Ms. Julia Berteletti were part of
the Smart Choices 4 Teens research team led by Dr. Brenda Miller from the
Prevention Research Center at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Smart Choices 4 Teens is an online,
interactive, family-based program for parents and older teens designed to
reduce teen alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. The program features three
sequential components (parent-teen communication, teen alcohol prevention, and
teen romantic relationships) that parents and teens complete separately before
working together through a discussion activity at the end of each component. A randomized
controlled trial with 411 families found significantly better outcomes for
teens in the experimental condition as compared to controls in terms of
decreased alcohol use and decreased sexual risk behaviors.
Dr. Brenda Miller’s presentation focused on the
design of the Smart Choices 4 Teens alcohol prevention component. This module targeted
eleven topics: (1) the decision to drink or not drink, (2) social host laws,
(3) physical effects of alcohol, (4) signs of alcohol poisoning, (5) social
consequences of alcohol, (6) an interactive Blood Alcohol Calculator, (7) myths
about alcohol, (8) creating a safety plan for parties, (9) parental influences,
(10) refusal skills, and (11) defining a drinking problem. The module
incorporated four different activity formats — video narratives, info-gadgets,
interactive activities, and structured discussions. Parents and teens engaged
in the same materials but did so separately, coming together to choose and
discuss hypothetical scenarios that guided the discussion offline. A “nudge”
feature was embedded to allow teens to prompt their parent to finish a module
and move to the end-of-module offline discussion or vice versa. The nudge
feature was used 561 times by 218 users.
Dr. Miller reported that 86% of experimental
families began the intervention and 50% of families completed the teen alcohol prevention
component. The average time needed to complete the alcohol component was 16
minutes. Parents and teens reported learning new lessons and becoming more
comfortable discussing alcohol use together. Barriers to completion included limited
understanding of some content and needing additional instructions.
Dr. David Buller presented a poster, with
analysis led by Dr. W. Gill Woodall, on the effect of teen engagement with Smart Choices 4 Teens. Teens and
parents (411 dyads) completed an online baseline survey prior to being assigned
to either the intervention or control conditions. Follow-up online surveys were
completed 6, 12, and 18 months later. The teen sample was 55% female and 72%
non-Hispanic White. The parent sample was comprised predominately of mothers
The Smart Choices 4 Teens website tracked
duration of time spent using each of the web-based components. In an analysis
of teens who completed the program in the intervention group (n=142), linear
regressions tested duration of teens’ time in each online component in the
entire program as predictors of teens’ past 30-day alcohol use at the 6-month
follow-up. More time spent by
teens using interactive activities negatively predicted later alcohol use, as
did teens’ time spent viewing videos. Also, teens’ time spent using info-gadget
activities had a negative relationship with alcohol use.
The researchers report that activities with
interactivity, animations, and video content may produce stronger preventive
effects on alcohol use because teens prefer this format over written text in
the info-gadgets, have more involvement with them, and/or find characters
relatable. These reactions may stimulate deep processing of prevention content.
The Smart Choices 4 Teens research was
supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism (AA020977; Dr. Brenda Miller, PIRE, Principal Investigator). Other
authors on Dr. Miller’s research team included Dr. Hilary Byrnes, Ms. Veronica
Rogers, and Dr. Joel Grube from PIRE; Dr. Beth Bourdeau from the University of
California San Francisco; and Dr. David Buller, Dr. W. Gill Woodall, and Ms.
Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel. Smart Choices 4 Teens was programmed by
the Creative Team at Klein Buendel.
Ms. Julia Berteletti, Klein Buendel Research Program Manager, is a Co-Investigator on a new research project aimed at teaching adolescent boys, with their parents, skills on regulating their emotions and how to communicate their feelings.
Emotional regulation is the ability to successfully understand and express one’s emotions (1). The large empirical literature links violent behavior and adolescents who lack this ability. Furthermore, numerous studies show that parental involvement is crucial to offsetting dating violence risk (2).
Northeastern University, in collaboration with Klein Buendel, conducted a pilot study which was funded by the National Institute of Justice and titled “Partner Violence Prevention for Middle School Boys: A Dyadic Web-Based Intervention” (2014-MU-CX-4002). The aim of the study was to develop a web-based intervention to reduce the risk of dating violence among middle-school aged males. The engaging web program was used by parents and adolescents together, with both the parent and the child choosing an avatar, playing games together, and being prompted to discuss the content.
Results showed that families generally found the program helpful and useful (3). Adolescents randomized to the STRONG condition were less likely to report dating violence perpetration events and victimization events when compared to the control group (3). Additionally, adolescents in the STRONG condition reported an increase in a number of emotional regulation measures compared to control participants (3).
The new Project STRONG R01 study will be conducted in a larger randomized controlled trial titled “Project STRONG: A Web-Based Dating Violence Prevention Program for Parents and Middle School Boys”. The web-based program will be translated and developed in Spanish and will be tested for its ability to reduce the risk of dating violence among both English- and Spanish-speaking middle-school aged males. Again, parents and their sons will complete the program together.
The research is funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health (HD097126; Dr. Chris Houck and Dr. Christine Rizzo, Principal Investigators). Ms. Berteletti will be collaborating with Dr. Chris Houck of Rhode Island Hospital and Dr. Christine Rizzo of Brown University.
1. Houck CD, Hadley W, Barker D, Brown LK, Hancock E, Almy B. An emotion regulation intervention to reduce risk behaviors among at-risk early adolescents. Prev Sci. 2016;17(1):71-82. doi: 10.1007/s11121-015-0597-0 2. Lundgren R, Amin A. Addressing intimate partner violence and sexual violence among adolescents: emerging evidence of effectiveness. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(1 Suppl):S42-S50. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.012 3. National Criminal Justice Reference Service; Rizzo CJ, Houck C. Summary Report: Partner Violence Prevention for Middle-School Boys: A Dyadic Web-Based Intervention Study (Project STRONG). Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/252517.pdf. Published January 2019. Accessed August 21, 2019.