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Preventing Alcohol and Drug Overuse Among Nightclub Patrons

Preventing Alcohol and Drug Overuse Among Nightclub Patrons

Nightclubs are high-risk settings for overuse of alcohol and other drugs. In a July publication in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, collaborators from the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), the University of California San Francisco, and Klein Buendel reported the outcomes of their intervention to protect nightclub patrons from substance abuse and harmful consequences.

Nightlife Safety Plans (NSP) is a group-based, tablet app-delivered intervention designed for groups of patrons arriving at nightclubs together. NSP encourages social groups to recognize early indicators of risk and take actions steps to de-escalate risky situations, such as physical and sexual aggression, through peer influence and other methods. The intervention was designed around a simple mnemonic – the three O’s: Outreach, Options, and Out:

  • Outreach: “provide outreach by approaching the friend and checking in, using nonconfrontational approaches”
  • Options: “provide options to a group member if a problem is identified”
  • Out: “know when the group should get out of the club to avoid further problems”

A total of 959 people from 352 social groups participated in the intervention at 41 different electronic music dance events at nightclubs in San Francisco, California. The measures (including breath samples for blood alcohol concentration and oral fluid samples for drug use), methods, analyses, results, discussion, and limitations are detailed in the publication.

In summary, intervening in the right place at the right time with peer influence strategies proved to be effective. The authors report that the NSP app appeared to increase protective actions to keep group members safe from overuse of alcohol and other drugs in these high-risk environments.

This research was funded by a grant to the Prevention Research Center at PIRE from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA022331; Dr. Brenda Miller, Principal Investigator). Authors of the publication include Dr. Hilary Byrnes, Dr. Brenda Miller, Dr. Mark Johnson, and Veronica Rogers from PIRE; Dr. Beth Bourdeau from the University of California San Francisco; and Dr. David Buller and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel. The NSP tablet app was developed by Klein Buendel’s Creative Team.

Ultraviolet Radiation and the Fading of Colored Tattoos

Ultraviolet Radiation and the Fading of Colored Tattoos

In a recent publication in Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, authors from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and Klein Buendel examine a case and describe how ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may affect tattoos by causing abnormal healing, premature fading, scabbing, and scarring.

The case under review revolved around a male patient with Fitzpatrick skin type III who presented concerns about a colored tattoo that had visibly undergone premature fading. In addition to a physical exam, the patient’s outdoor habits, medical history, and sun safety behaviors were also documented. The patient had visible uneven distribution of red and yellow pigment in the tattoo on his arm. The full report, discussion, and conclusion can be found in the publication.

Although tattoo fading is a multifaceted process, excessive UVR exposure can be a preventable factor. By taking simple measures such as wearing sunscreen greater than SPF 30, wearing sun protective clothing, and seeking shade, individuals can minimize unnecessary sun exposure to protect their skin and tattoos.

This project was funded by a grant and a supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA206569; Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Dr. Robert Dellavalle, Multiple Principal Investigators). Paper authors include Dr. Cristian Gonzalez, Dr. Chandler Rundle, and Dr. Adrian Pona from the University of Colorado School of Medicine; Dr. Barbara Walkosz from Klein Buendel; and Dr. Robert Dellavalle from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center Dermatology Service.

Melanoma Receptor Variation in a New Mexico Population

Melanoma Receptor Variation in a New Mexico Population

Dr. David Buller, KB Senior Scientist and Director of Research, is a co-author on a paper published recently in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. The paper examines the Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) in a multicultural New Mexican population. MC1R is a risk factor for developing melanoma skin cancer because it contributes to skin pigmentation. The paper’s lead author is Dr. Kirsten White from the University of New Mexico. Other co-authors are from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, the University of Utah, and the University of New Mexico.

Specifically, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MC1R and their association with race and ethnicity, skin type, and perceived cancer risk were evaluated by genotyping MC1R in 191 primary care clinic patients in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A full description of the methods, results, conclusions, and limitations of the research can be found in the publication.

Overall, the authors concluded that a specific variant of interest in MC1R may not be a risk factor for melanoma among New Mexican Hispanics, and that genetic risk cannot be inferred from Northern European populations directly to non-European populations.

Economic Evaluation of Adopting Occupational Sun Protection Policies

Economic Evaluation of Adopting Occupational Sun Protection Policies

In a recent publication in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Klein Buendel investigators and their colleagues discuss the economic evaluation of an intervention promoting adoption of occupational sun protection actions by Colorado public-sector employers.

The intervention, Sun Safe Workplaces (SSW), was a two-year randomized field trial promoting employer adoption of sun safety policy and providing training in personal sun protection for outdoor workers. The trial included 98 local Colorado government organizations such as municipalities, counties, and special districts (public organizations providing water, sanitation, parks and recreation, and fire protection). SSW intervention costs were organized into two components: “delivery” costs and “action” costs. Delivery costs were incurred to directly implement and maintain the SSW intervention and included costs of both project staff and the participating worksites. Action costs were incurred by the worksites themselves for implementing the sun protection actions.

The publication presents the results of the economic evaluation of SSW. A full description of the methods, measures, results, and conclusion of the research can also be found in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine publication.

This study demonstrated the interactions of cost and implementation that explain — and hopefully guide — the adoption of and investment in occupational sun safety. The SSW intervention was also successful in extending the adoption of sun protection actions among intervention worksites at a cost per employee that is comparable to other worksite health interventions.

This analysis was funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (CA134705; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Multiple Principal Investigators). The paper’s lead author is Dr. Richard Meenan from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Oregon. Additional authors include Dr. David Buller, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Ms. Mary Buller, Ms. Rachel Eye, and Ms. Savanna Olivas from Klein Buendel; and Dr. Allan Wallis from the University of Colorado Denver.

Using Panel Vendors to Recruit Research Participants

Using Panel Vendors to Recruit Research Participants

It has become more common to recruit research study participants through online panel vendors, such as GfK or Qualtrics. In a publication made available recently in PubMed Central from Evaluation and the Health Professions, Dr. Meme Wang-Schweig from the Prevention Research Center at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) and her coauthors (including Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel), report on the use of panel vendors for recruiting research participants into a randomized controlled trial. The research study was testing an online, family-based alcohol prevention program for parents and older teens, called Smart Choices 4 Teens.

Panel vendors are hired to recruit and match potential research participants to a target population for data collection.  Most panel vendors use non-probability sampling which does not involve random selection. People opt in to participate. The vendors advertise for panelists using website banner ads, emails, direct mail, etc. Panelists are paid but may also enjoy contributing their opinions to a research study. Panel vendors can recruit a potential research sample quickly.

Dr. Wang-Schweig’s paper endeavors to answer two methodological questions: (1) how well do panel vendors provide a sample of families to participate in a trial who meet specific inclusion criteria, and (2) how well do panel vendors provide a sample of families to participate in a trial who reflect the make-up of the general population? Using the Smart Choice 4 Teens project’s experience as a real-world example, the authors describe the process of working with panel vendors, the sample’s match to the intended target population, and the additional screening they employed to ensure the quality of the sample. Several recommendations are made for other research teams looking to use panel vendors to recruit study participants.

Smart Choice 4 Teens was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA020977; Dr. Brenda Miller, PIRE, Principal Investigator). Dr. Wang-Schweig’s coauthors for this publication included Dr. Brenda Miller, Dr. Hilary Byrnes, Dr. Beth Bourdeau, and Ms. Veronica Rogers from PIRE; and Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel.

The Importance of Managers’ Awareness of Sun Protection Policy

The Importance of Managers’ Awareness of Sun Protection Policy

Improving occupational sun protection is a priority in the United States, as The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer highlights. Klein Buendel and its collaborators responded to the call by launching a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a workplace sun protection program for outdoor workers. The program, Sun Safe Workplaces, was implemented with 98 public employers in Colorado, a state with high ultraviolet radiation due to its high elevation and sunny climate. The intervention promoted the adoption or strengthening of sun safety policy and the implementation of employee sun protection training. A two-year follow-up study also was completed with 68 of the 98 public sector employers.

In a recent publication in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Klein Buendel Senior Scientist, and her coauthors reported results related to the hypothesis that senior managers’ awareness of sun protection policy in the workplace would predict increased sun safety practices by employers and employees who work outdoors.

A full description of the methods (questionnaires and on-site observations), results, conclusions, and limitations of the research can be found in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine publication. In general, more sun safety messages, manager-employee communication, sun safety practices, and sun protection equipment (sunscreen, hats, etc. ) were evident when senior managers were more aware of their organization’s sun protection policy.

Overall, the authors found that occupational sun protection programs can be more effective on the “front line” (with people who work outdoors) when the “back office” (senior management) is aware of and can, therefore, support and encourage their organization’s sun safety policies and practices.

This analysis was funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (CA134705; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Principal Investigators). Dr. Walkosz’s coauthors on this paper included Dr. David Buller, Ms. Mary Buller, and Ms. Xia (Lucia) Liu from Klein Buendel, and Dr. Allan Wallis from the University of Colorado Denver.

Computer-based Learning for End-of-Life Care in Prisons

Computer-based Learning for End-of-Life Care in Prisons

In a recent publication in the Journal of Forensic Nursing, authors from The Pennsylvania State University and Klein Buendel describe, in detail, the design and development of a computer-based learning program for geriatric and end-of-life (EOL) care for incarcerated people. The program, called Enhancing Care for the Aged and Dying in Prison (ECAD-P), was funded by a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant to Klein Buendel from the National Institute on Aging.

Content creation was based on the Phase I Principal Investigators’ paper-based EOL Toolkit. The systematic design and development of the training program was guided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Framework for Going to Full Scale. The Journal of Forensic Nursing paper describes the painstaking processes of designing a program logo, recording video testimonials, creating graphic novels, incorporating visually-stimulating images, confirming reading level, and programming the functionality of the media-rich, interactive computer-based training program. The final ECAD-P program has six modules which take approximately 2.5 hours to complete in one or more sessions.

The STTR Phase I and Phase II projects were funded by a grant from the National Institute on Aging (AG049570). The Phase I Multiple Principal Investigators, Dr. Janice Penrod and Dr. Susan Loeb, are from The Pennsylvania State University. The Phase II Multiple Principal Investigators, Dr. Susan Loeb and Dr. Valerie Myers, are from The Pennsylvania State University and Klein Buendel, respectively. Other paper coauthors include Rachel Wion from The Pennsylvania State University, Tiffany Jerrod from Klein Buendel, and Sophia Strickfaden from Johnson & Wales University. ECAD-P was programmed by the Creative Team at Klein Buendel.

Physical Activity Maintenance in African American Men

Physical Activity Maintenance in African American Men

In a recent publication in mHealth, Dr. Robert Newton, Dr. Valerie Myers, and their coauthors describe the development of a smartphone app to help African American men maintain physical activity. The formative research was funded by a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant to Klein Buendel from the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities.

African American men experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality from several chronic diseases that have low physical activity as a modifiable risk factor. For example, increased levels of physical activity have been shown to reduce the risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Yet, African American men’s levels of regular physical activity remain low.

The study set out to develop and test the feasibility of a prototype smartphone app to promote physical activity maintenance in African American men. The publication describes formative research (focus groups), user-centered design, and evaluation (usability testing and one-month beta testing) of the MobileMen app through an iterative process with participants from the target population.

MobileMen and its learning activities were designed with a Social Cognitive Theory framework. The programmed app included a dashboard, learning activities, a prompting system, an activity tracker, and rewards.

Users reported above average satisfaction with the app. They also rated the app as user-friendly, helpful, enjoyable, and culturally relevant. The participants reported willingness to use the app to improve their physical activity. Rates of app use and other data are reported in the paper. A full description of the methods, results, conclusions, strengths, and limitations of the feasibility study, as well as a discussion on the inclusion of nutrition information, can be found in the mHealth publication.

The STTR Phase I project was funded by grant number MD010304 (Dr. Robert Newton, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Principal Investigator). Coauthors include Dr. Valerie Myers and Tiffany Jerrod from Klein Buendel, Leah Carter and Jessica Romain from the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, and Dr. Derek Griffith from Vanderbilt University.

Prevention of Alcohol Use in Older Teens

Prevention of Alcohol Use in Older Teens

The growing incidence of alcohol use among teens is an important public health problem. In a recent publication in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Klein Buendel Senior Scientists, Dr. David Buller and Dr. Gill Woodall, joined multiple co-authors to report on the effects of a new alcohol use prevention program for older teenagers. The program is called Smart Choices 4 Teens. The paper reports the results from a randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of this online, interactive, family-based alcohol prevention program with over 400 families on preventing and reducing teen alcohol use.

Smart Choices 4 Teens was designed with three sequential components: general parent-teen communication, teen alcohol use, and teen romantic relationships. The creators adapted two evidence-based programs — Family Matter (1) and Parent Handbook (2) — to appeal to older teens and their parents. Communication skills training was incorporated through videos and interactive activities. The program was designed to have parents and teens go through the online activities separately and then complete a discussion activity together at the end of each component. The Alcohol Component is the focus of this publication.

Use of the program varied across families and components. Families that used more of the program reported better outcomes. Data related to dosage of the program and changes in drinking rates are reported in detail in the paper. Many positive effects were seen at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups with participating families. For example, teens in the experimental group reported fewer friends who had been drunk at six months, and parents in the experimental group reported more communication about social host laws. At 12 months, parents in the experimental group reported consuming fewer alcoholic beverages.

Overall, the findings suggest that Smart Choices 4 Teens was beneficial for families, especially when parents and teens completed more of the program. The authors believe that dissemination and implementation strategies that motivate completion of Smart Choice 4 Teens content, especially the Alcohol Component, can improve outcomes related to older teens’ alcohol use.

A full description of the methods, results, and conclusions of this study can be found in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. This research was funded by a grant to the Prevention Research Center at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA020977; Brenda Miller, Principal Investigator). Authors in addition to Dr. Miller, Dr. Buller, and Dr. Woodall include first author Dr. Hilary Byrnes, Dr. Joel Grube, Dr. Beth Bourdeau, and Dr. Meme Wang-Schweig from the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. The Smart Choices 4 Teens program was produced by Klein Buendel’s Creative Team.

References

  1. Bauman, K. E., Foshee, V. A., Ennett, S. T., Hicks, K., & Pemberton, M. (2001). Family Matters: A family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promotion Practice, 2, 81-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/152483990100200112
  2. Turrisi, R., Jaccard, J., Taki, R., Dunnam, H., & Grimes, J. (2001). Examination of the short-term efficacy of a parent intervention to reduce college student drinking tendencies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 366–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.15.4.366
Use of Media and Social Media in the Prevention of Substance Use

Use of Media and Social Media in the Prevention of Substance Use

Three Klein Buendel Senior Scientists have authored a chapter in a new 2019 book, Prevention of Substance Use, published by Springer. The chapter titled, “Use of Media and Social Media in the Prevention of Substance Use,” was written by Dr. David Buller, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, and Dr. W. Gill Woodall.

Mass media have changed dramatically over the past 25 years, yet still remain an important channel for substance abuse prevention messages (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, marijuana). Exposure to messaging is an important issue for campaigns. This book chapter describes how online and social media have added new media platforms for substance abuse campaigns. Overall, evaluations of web-based interventions show some promise for substance abuse prevention, although the effects appear modest. Less is known about the effectiveness of social media in substance abuse campaigns, especially the influence of user-generated content and commercial advertising.

The chapter describes several recent changes that have revolutionized the media. These include the birth of the Internet, the emergence of new media (including web-based intervention and social media) that has made content available on-demand, and the introduction of mobile computing that has vastly changed connectivity, reach, and engagement. Each of these developments raises questions (which the authors explore) about the influence of new media on substance abuse campaigns and challenges for conducting research on the effects of prevention intervention delivery. The book chapter delves into the role of audience activity, starting with audience exposure determined by selective attention, exposure, and retention, and moving on to examine user-generated content in the new media environment.

The emergence of new media holds promise for future substance abuse prevention campaigns but comes with a number of challenges that are explored in the chapter. These include (1) the fact that theories of social media impact are not well developed; (2) the development of effective methodologies to measure and assess the effects of emerging media; (3) the determination of how commercial online marketing strategies influence substance use and how social marketing approaches can use similar strategies for prevention; (4) the need to understand the use of multiple platforms for promotion (e.g., broadcast, print, online media); (5) the determination of how best to leverage and encourage user-generated media for substance abuse interventions; and (6) the need to explore the interactive nature of emerging media more fully. The authors suggest that these challenges represent tremendous opportunites to better understand and more effectively impact many different populations for the improvement of their health.

Book Citation

Z. Sloboda, R. Hingson, and H. Petras (Eds.), Prevention of substance use. New York: Springer, 2019.