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Scented Lotions and Adverse Tattoo Reactions

Scented Lotions and Adverse Tattoo Reactions

Klein Buendel Senior Scientist, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, is a co-author on a recent publication in the Dermatology Online Journal. In the manuscript, Dr. Walkosz and her co-authors discuss how scented lotions may cause scaring, premature aging, and fading of tattoos.

Tattoo aftercare instructions are often provided to clients after receiving a tattoo. However, aftercare instructions can vary by studio and are often not universal or supported by research. The authors examine a case study of a man with no pre-existing skin conditions, family history, allergies, or other factors, who developed a rash on his new tattoo. Upon questioning, it was discovered that the client had applied a scented lotion to the new tattoo, at which point he began to experience problems with scabbing and fading tattoo ink.

The authors provide a case discussion about how the use of a scented lotion may have caused a negative, adverse reaction to the new tattoo and discuss the importance of treating a new tattoo as flesh wound. The full discussion and conclusion can be found in the publication.

This research team was funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA206569; Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Dr. Robert Dellavalle, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors also include, Dr. Adrian Pona from the Department of Dermatology at University of Colorado School of Medicine and the Department of Internal Medicine at the Vidant Medical Center of East Carolina University; Dr. Cristian Gonzalez from the Department of Dermatology at University of Colorado School of Medicine; and Dr. Robert Dellavalle from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center Dermatology Service. 

Health Literacy and Genomic Testing for Melanoma

Health Literacy and Genomic Testing for Melanoma

Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel’s Director of Research, is a co-author on a paper published recently in Patient Education and Counseling that examines how health literacy skills impact primary care patients’ understanding of melanoma genetic testing results. The paper’s lead author is Dr. Kimberly Kaphingst from the Huntsman Cancer Institute and the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. Additional co-authors are from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, and the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of New Mexico.

Making a significant health decision can be burdensome. It involves obtaining, processing, and weighing an abundance of new information. Personal health literacy skills may help lighten the load. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “personal health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the ability to find, understand, and use information and services to inform health-related decisions and actions for themselves and others.”

The Patient Education and Counseling paper describes the methods and measures used to examine whether health literacy skills, educational attainment, or melanoma risk were related to patients’ short-term cognitive and affective responses to personal melanoma genetic test results. Cognitive responses that were measured included perceived clarity and believability of the test results, and how often respondents thought about the test results. Affective reactions that were assessed included things like confusion, fear, hopefulness, relief, and regret, among others. Study results, conclusions, limitations, and implications are reported in the publication. Overall, the authors report that some individuals may need assistance in understanding genetic information related to melanoma risk.

This research was supported by the National Cancer Institute (CA181241; Dr. Jennifer Hay and Dr. Marianne Berwick, Multiple Principal Investigators) and the Huntsman Cancer Foundation.

Scaling-up an Evidence-based Workplace Sun Safety Program

Scaling-up an Evidence-based Workplace Sun Safety Program

Authors of a recent online publication in Contemporary Clinical Trails recommend that “successful methods for scaling-up evidence-based programs are needed to prevent skin cancer among adults who work outdoors in the sun.” The paper describes the design and baseline descriptive data from a workplace intervention being conducted by Klein Buendel and several research collaborators. The on-going randomized trial compares two methods of scaling-up the Sun Safe Workplaces intervention with 21 state Departments of Transportation and their employees who work outdoors. 

A total of 138 regional districts from the Departments of Transportation were randomly assigned to either an in-person program where project staff meet personally with managers, conduct trainings for employees, and provide printed materials, or a digital program where project staff conduct these same activities virtually, using conferencing technology, online training, and electronic materials.

Delivery of Sun Safe Workplaces in both groups is tailored to managers’ readiness to adopt occupational sun safety. Posttesting will assess manager’s support for and use of Sun Safe Workplaces and employees’ sun safety. An economic evaluation will explore whether the method that uses digital technology that may result in lower implementation of Sun Safe Workplaces, is more cost-effective relative to the in-person method.

The 21 state Departments of Transportation vary in size from 997 to 18,415 employees. At baseline, managers reported being generally supportive of occupational sun safety. A minority reported that the Departments had a written sun safety policy, half reported sun safety training for employees, and two-thirds reported messaging and communication about sun protection for employees. The research will help determine whether digital methods can facilitate a cost-effective scale-up of Sun Safe Workplaces for outdoor workers in industries across the country.  

This research project (CA210259) is funded as part of the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Moonshot Initiative, which aims to accelerate cancer research in order to make more therapies available to patients, while also improving the ability to prevent cancer and detect it at an early stage. This project, Sun Safe Workplaces-Technology, is being led by KB’s Director of Research, Dr. David Buller, as Principal Investigator. Co-authors on the Contemporary Clinical Trails publication include Dr. Richard Meenan from Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research, Dr. Gary Cutter from Pythagoras, Inc., Dr. Sherry Pagoto from the University of Connecticut, and Ms. Mary Buller, Ms. Julia Berteletti, Ms. Rachel Eye, and Dr. Barbara Walkosz from Klein Buendel.

Sun Safe Partners Online

Sun Safe Partners Online

Findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and preliminary impact of an online couple-focused intervention to improve sun protection behavior were published recently in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. The research team was led by Dr. Sharon Manne from the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. Collaborators from Michigan State University, the University of Connecticut, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Klein Buendel rounded out the research team.

At the time of the study, Sun Safe Partners Online was a web-based intervention with four individual-focused modules and four couple-focused modules. A total of 75 couples who reported suboptimal levels of sun protection were randomly assigned to receive either Sun Safe Partners Online or a generic sun safety education intervention. Participants were recruited through Facebook advertising, resulting in rapid enrollment and higher acceptance than was evident in a previous trial testing telephone and print intervention. Feasibility was assessed by enrollment, engagement, survey completion, module completion, and module satisfaction. Participants also completed pre/post surveys assessing sun protection, sun exposure on weekends, sunburn incidence, and attitudes toward sun protection. A full description of the methods, analyses, and effects of the study can be found in the publication.

Sun Safe Partners Online was found to be an innovative strategy for engaging adults in sun safety. The authors conclude that “a couple-focused intervention may hold promise as a way to improve sun protection behaviors beyond interventions focused solely on individuals by leveraging the concern, collaboration, and support among intimate partners and addressing relationship-based barriers to sun protection.”

This pilot research was supported by Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey Institutional funds.

Sales of Recreational Cannabis to Alcohol-Intoxicated Customers

Sales of Recreational Cannabis to Alcohol-Intoxicated Customers

To prevent harm, some U.S. states have laws prohibiting the sale of recreational marijuana to alcohol-intoxicated customers. In a recent publication in the International Journal of Drug Policy, Klein Buendel researchers and collaborators evaluated an online responsible marijuana vendor (RMV) training program – Train to Tend – and its performance at deterring sales to apparently alcohol-intoxicated customers in recreational cannabis stores. Much like the training of responsible alcohol sales practices, RMV training may prove beneficial for helping to keep customers and communities safe.

One hundred fifty stores from Colorado, Oregon, and Washington were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial. Half of the stores were randomly selected to receive Train to Tend training. One of the five online training modules addressed recognizing signs of impairment and intoxication, refusing sales to intoxicated patrons, and understanding the risks of driving under the influence of cannabis.

The evaluation employed pseudo-patron pairs, one of which displayed obvious signs of alcohol intoxication. The refusal of cannabis sales to the pseudo-intoxicated buyers was very low. In some cases, store personnel made comments or expressed suspicion towards buyers’ behavior, but continued with the sale nonetheless. Refusal rates between intervention and control stores were not significantly different. Overall, responsible marijuana vending practices alone did not appear to influence the reduction of marijuana sales to customers with obvious signs of alcohol intoxication. A full description of the methods, results, and discussion can be found in the publication.

This research was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (DA038933; Dr. David Buller, Principal Investigator). Co-authors on the publication include Dr. Robert Saltz from the Prevention Research Center at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation in California; Dr. Gary Cutter from the University of Alabama, Birmingham; and Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Andrew Grayson, and Sierra Svendsen from Klein Buendel.

Sun Safety Communication and Behavior for Students in a School Policy Intervention

Sun Safety Communication and Behavior for Students in a School Policy Intervention

In a recent publication in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Klein Buendel researchers and collaborators evaluated the Sun Safe Schools policy implementation intervention program in California school districts.

The United States has a high occurrence of skin cancer which has created a call to action for many organizations. The Sun Safe Schools program was created to help prevent skin cancer and to protect the nation’s youth by encouraging healthy sun safety habits for young students. In schools specifically, “children receive substantial solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, including while at school (1), and are frequently sunburned (2).”

In the study, primary schools who had existing sun safety policies were randomized into intervention and control groups and a posttest was distributed to parents. With parents in the intervention schools receiving more information about sun safety, their students on average were more likely to wear sun-protective clothing outside of school more frequently than the students of parents in the control schools. Parents in the intervention group also reported less sunburns and less time outdoors among children whose schools had implemented sun safety practices. A full description of the methods, analyses, results, conclusions, and limitations can be found in the publication.

Overall, support and implementation for a sun protection policy in school districts increased the amount of sun safety information to parents and increased the effectiveness of sun safety behaviors for children. However, experienced faculty and engaging parents are both important factors in the prevention of student skin cancer.

This research was funded by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health (HD074416; Dr. Kim Reynolds and Dr. David Buller, Multiple Principal Investigators). Other authors include Dr. Richard Meenan from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Oregon; Dr. Jeff Ashley from Sun Safety for Kids in Los Angeles, California; Kim Massie previously from Claremont Graduate University; and Mary Buller and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel.

References

1. Buller DB, Borland R. Skin cancer prevention for children: a critical review. Health Educ Behav. 1999;26(3):317-43.

2. Buller DB, Cokkinides V, Hall HI, Hartman AM, Saraiya M, Miller E, et al. Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: systematic review from national surveys. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(5 Suppl 1):114-23.

Gaining Entry to Correctional Settings for Health Research

Gaining Entry to Correctional Settings for Health Research

In a recent publication for a special issue on Nursing Leadership in Correction in the journal Nursing Leadership, authors from Penn State University, Indiana University, King’s College, and Klein Buendel share lessons learned from implementing a large-scale health communication research project in correctional settings. The NIH-funded project developed, implemented, and evaluated computer-based learning modules to train corrections personnel in geriatric and end-of-life care for incarcerated individuals. The program, Enhancing Care for the Aged and Dying in Prison, was funded by a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant to Klein Buendel from the National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health.

The lessons learned, and described in detail in the publication, include the importance of building a team of experts, “planning and punting” (such as designing a reliable communication plan and adjusting to the distinctive facets of each prison), coordinating with institutional review boards to protect vulnerable populations, and examining denied applications for access to correctional facilities in order to inform future planning. According to the authors, “These lessons serve to establish best practices on how to access correctional settings and to enable more research in corrections.” Access to even one correctional facility can help researchers learn more about and help to improve healthcare for people who are incarcerated.

This research was funded by a Phase I and II STTR grant from the National Institute on Aging (AG049570). The Phase I Multiple Principal Investigators were Dr. Janice Penrod and Dr. Susan Loeb from Penn State University. The Phase II Multiple Principal Investigators were Dr. Susan Loeb and Dr. Valerie Myers from Penn State University and Klein Buendel, respectively.  The first author of the recent Nursing Leadership publication is Dr. Erin Kitt-Lewis from Penn State University. Her coauthors include Dr. Susan Loeb from Penn State University, Dr. Valerie Myers and Tiffany Jerrod from Klein Buendel, Dr. Rachel Wion from Indiana University, and Dr. Julie Murphy from King’s College.

Economic Analysis of a School-based Sun Protection Program

Economic Analysis of a School-based Sun Protection Program

The U.S. Surgeon General and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have called on the nation’s schools to help prevent skin cancer by implementing sun safety practices and policies. The Sun Safe Schools program was designed by Klein Buendel researchers and collaborators in response to those calls to action. The program was implemented and evaluated with 118 public elementary schools in California school districts with formal sun safety policy. Administrators of schools randomized to the Sun Safe Schools intervention group received phone and email support for implementing school sun safety practices by trained coaches over 20 months.

A significant part of the program evaluation — an economic analysis — has been e-published ahead of print in the American Journal of Health Promotion. The lead author is Dr. Richard Meenan, a Senior Investigator and Health Economist from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Oregon.

The publication reports the methods, analyses, results, conclusions, and limitations of the economic analysis. Sun Safe Schools program delivery costs were micro-costed and self-reported school practices were organized into ten categories that were assigned labor and non-labor costs. Across 53 intervention schools, per-student delivery costs averaged $0.69, of which $0.44 represented school administrator time. Program delivery costs, the costs of implementing sun safety practices (such as student education, parent outreach, and shade construction), and predictors of costs are detailed in the publication.

The authors conclude that a program of phone and email coaching of elementary school administrators in school districts with formal sun safety policies can stimulate implementation of sun safety practices at a reasonable cost. The results can assist school administrators with the implementation of sun safety practices.

The Sun Safe Schools program was a collaborative research effort of Claremont Graduate University (CGU), the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, and Klein Buendel. The research was funded by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health (HD074416; Dr. Kim Reynolds, CGU, and Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel, Multiple Principal Investigators). Other collaborators included Dr. Richard Meenan from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research; Dr. Jeff Ashley from Sun Safety for Kids in Los Angeles, California; Kim Massie previously from CGU; and Julia Berteletti, Xia (Lucia) Liu, and Mary Buller from Klein Buendel.

Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults

Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults

In a publication in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Dr. Nancy Glynn from the University of Pittsburgh, Klein Buendel’s Senior Scientist Dr. Valerie Myers, and several other contributors evaluate the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study.

The LIFE study was a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a moderate-intensity physical activity intervention with a health education program for sedentary older persons, 65 years or older, with low physical activity who are at risk for major mobility disability. LIFE’s primary goal was to investigate whether physical activity is an effective and practical way for preventing major mobility disability in older persons, which is defined as the inability to walk 400 meters.

For the study, participants at multiple centers were asked to perform a 400-meter walk at a normal pace every six months at which various measurements were assessed and calculated including baseline fatigue, self-reported fatigue, and energy levels. The physical activity intervention incorporated lower extremity resistance exercises, balance exercises, stretching and behavioral counseling. Health education seminars were also provided with information available about health-related matters and involved various upper extremity stretching exercises.

To learn more about the physical activity intervention and if it was effective at preserving the mobility of older adults, you can view a full description of the methods, results, and discussion in the publication.

This research was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging (AG022376; Marco Pahor, MD, University of Florida, Principal Investigator). Dr. Myers is one of the paper’s 16 authors, including the Interventions and Independence for Elders Study Group.

Hispanic Tattoo Artists as Skin Cancer Prevention Influencers

Hispanic Tattoo Artists as Skin Cancer Prevention Influencers

Skin cancer is increasing in the Hispanic population and there is a public health need for campaigns to target this often-underrepresented population. In a recent publication in The Journal of Drugs in Dermatology (JDD), authors from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and Klein Buendel examine how Hispanic tattoo artists can serve as skin cancer prevention advocates for the Hispanic population. JDD also released a podcast with the authors about the study earlier this month.

Multiple in-depth interviews were conducted with Hispanic tattoo artists at various tattoo studios in Salt Lake City, Utah. The interviews provided insight into the artist’s skin cancer knowledge, their current sun safety recommendations to clients, and their willingness to incorporate skin cancer prevention into their future work routines.

Data analysis indicated that a most of the artists had a large percentage of Hispanic clients and repeat customers. All artists also had some level of skin cancer knowledge, though not extensive enough to provide basic sun protection tips in their regular tattoo aftercare instructions to clients (such as what specific Sun Protection Factor to use, when to reapply sunscreen, and the use of cover up clothing). Despite this, all artists were enthusiastic about providing sun safety messages on their social media pages and would be willing to partake in some level of skin cancer prevention training and education in the future.

With lengthy tattoo sessions and repeat clientele, Hispanic tattoo artists could serve as beneficial influencers in the early detection of skin cancers in the Hispanic population. Researchers concluded that by providing comprehensive full-body sun protection information to their clients through tattoo aftercare instructions, alerting clients to suspicious moles, and using social media messages, Hispanic tattoo artists could have a big impact on their clients’ skin health. The study’s complete analysis and discussion can be found in the publication.

This project was funded by a grant and a supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA206569; Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Dr. Robert Dellavalle, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors include Dr. Cristian Gonzalez, and Dr. Adrian Pona from the University of Colorado School of Medicine; Dr. Barbara Walkosz from Klein Buendel; and Dr. Robert Dellavalle from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center Dermatology Service.