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Responsible Beverage Service Training for Spanish-Speaking Alcohol Servers

Responsible Beverage Service Training for Spanish-Speaking Alcohol Servers

Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) training has shown promise to reduce alcohol-related injury and mortality. The diffusion of RBS training is limited. Only 25 U.S. states require RBS training, while other states incentivize or have no RBS regulations. One diffusion limitation is that RBS training in the United Stated is typically offered in English from a mainstream culture point of view. 

Klein Buendel Senior Scientist, Dr. W. Gill Woodall, presented data on the systematic testing of a new Spanish language version of an evidence-based online RBS training program at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Kettil Bruun Society for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol, May 30 to June 3, 2022 in Warsaw, Poland. WayToServe Español (WTS-E) is specifically tailored to Hispanic cultural beliefs, tastes, and experiences.

Spanish-speaking alcohol servers in Texas and New Mexico were involved in WTS-E development and evaluation. Focus groups and usability interviews were employed in systematic development. A randomized efficacy trial employed Spanish-speaking intoxicated pseudo-patron assessments of premises at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year post-training, with premises randomized to WTS-E or the usual RBS training. 

A randomized trial was conducted with 80 alcohol premises (40 onsite liquor by the drink premises, and 40 offsite package sales premises), with pseudo-intoxicated patron assessments at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and one-year follow-up. At baseline, the alcohol sales refusal was 21.6%, with a significant difference between states. The presentation examined the impact of a linguistically- and culturally-tailored online RBS training in Spanish-trading alcohol premises in two states with different alcohol RBS regulations. Implications for alcohol policy research were discussed.

The WTS-E research was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities at the National Institutes of Health (MD010405; Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Principal Investigator). Collaborating co-authors on the presentation included Dr. Robert Saltz from the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation; Dr. Frank Perez and Dr. Areli Chacon Silva from the University of Texas at El Paso; Dr. Victoria Sanchez and Dr. Randall Starling from the University of New Mexico; and Dr. David Buller, Jeannyfer Camacho Reither, Lila Martinez, and Marita Brooks from Klein Buendel.

Promoting Social Distancing and COVID-19 Vaccine Intentions

Promoting Social Distancing and COVID-19 Vaccine Intentions

Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel’s Director of Research, presented findings from a supplemental campaign to the Health Chat social media intervention for mothers and their teenage daughters at the 72nd Annual Conference of the International Communication Association in Paris, France, May 26-30, 2022.

Dr. David Buller Presenting at ICA

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most severe public health crisis in the past 100 years. To control the pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advised Americans to practice non-pharmaceutical interventions (social distancing) and federal and state governments mounted an unprecedented biomedical endeavor to develop and distribute vaccines and boosters.

Social media is playing a large role in disseminating information on the COVID-19 pandemic, but it is also being used to spread misinformation that affects prevention measures such as social distancing and vaccine acceptance.

A sample of 303 mothers of teen daughters were enrolled in a 3 (information source) x 4 (assessment period) randomized factorial trial from January to March 2021 to evaluate effects of information sources in a social media campaign addressing non-pharmaceutical interventions (social distancing), COVID-19 vaccinations, media literacy, and mother-daughter communication about COVID-19. Mothers received the 9-week campaign in one of three Facebook private groups in which posts contained information and links to government agencies, near-peer parents, or news media.

Mothers reported social distancing behavior and COVID-19 vaccine intentions for self and daughter in baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-weeks post-randomization assessments.

In intent-to-treat analyses, social distancing behavior by mothers and daughters decreased over time but vaccine intentions increased. The decrease in social distancing by daughters was greater in the near-peer source group and lesser in the government source group. Higher perceived credibility of assigned information source increased social distancing and vaccine intentions. Decreasing case counts, relaxation of government restrictions, and vaccine distribution during the study may explain the decreased social distancing and increased vaccine intentions.

Campaign planners may be more effective when selecting information sources that audiences consider credible when promoting COVID-19 prevention as no source was more credible in general.

This research was funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors on this presentation include Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Joseph Divito, Christie Idiong, and Haley Troy from the University of Connecticut; Dr. Kim Henry from Colorado State University; Dr. Katie Baker and Dr. Joel Hillhouse from East Tennessee State University; and Dr. David Buller, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Dr. Gill Woodall, Julia Berteletti, and Alishia Kinsey from Klein Buendel.

Mothers’ Reactions to a COVID-19 Prevention Facebook Group

Mothers’ Reactions to a COVID-19 Prevention Facebook Group

Social media platforms have been a tool for disseminating recommendations and updates on COVID-19. Christie Idiong from the University of Connecticut presented qualitative findings from the COVID-19 Health Chat program at the 43rd Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in Baltimore, MD, April 6-9 2022.

The COVID-19 Health Chat program was a 9-week Facebook-delivered intervention to provide mothers of teenage daughters with messages promoting non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines, teaching digital and media literacy, and supporting family communication around COVID-19.

After the intervention, the research team conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 mothers. Mothers were asked: 1) “What did you like the most about being in the Facebook group?”, 2) “What did you like least?”, 3) “What did you think of the information sources used?”, and 4) “How would you compare the quality of the information you received in this Facebook group relative to other sources of information you’ve encountered during the pandemic?”.

Responses to each question were double coded and summarized. When asked what they liked most about the program, the most common response was the reliable information provided, followed by interacting with group members. When asked what they liked least, the most common responses indicated they did not dislike anything about the group, disliked extreme opinions from other mothers, and lacked interest in the information. When asked about sources used in the Facebook feed, the most common responses said sources were credible and helpful, followed by not recalling the sources, and sources being biased. When asked how the information in the group compared to other sources they encountered in the pandemic, most participants responded it was about the same or better quality, followed by not remembering the content. Most participants indicated that information they received was reliable, helpful, and of similar or better quality than what they had previously encountered.

Future research is needed to understand how individuals in the general population determine a source of information is reliable and how prevention communication on other health topics can be disseminated with similar success.

This research is funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors on this poster presentation include Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Christie Idiong, Joseph Divito, Kaylei Arcangel, and Haley Troy from the University of Connecticut; and Julia Berteletti, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Dr. Gill Woodall, Alishia Kinsey, and Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel.

Indoor Tanning Policy and the Impact of COVID-19 on Tanning Facilities

Indoor Tanning Policy and the Impact of COVID-19 on Tanning Facilities

Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel presented findings from a study on U.S. indoor tanning legislation efforts related to reduced indoor tanning by minors at the 43rd Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in Baltimore, MD, April 6-9 2022.

Skin cancer is a significant and expensive public health problem, with approximately 5 million Americans treated at a cost of over $8 billion annually. Indoor tanning (IT) is a well-established cause of melanoma and keratinocyte carcinomas.

Julia Berteletti Presenting at SBM

IT is regulated in two main ways: states restricting minor access and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations to minimize harm. Since 2012, 22 states and the District of Columbia adopted IT bans for all minors, ten banned some minors by age, and 12 required parental consent/accompaniment, but six have no law, primarily due to failed legislation. Seven states proposed new legislation in 2021. Additionally, FDA regulations (e.g., protective eyewear, session duration) exist to minimize harm from IT devices.

Recent evidence suggests that more stringent laws (for example, age bans vs. parental consent laws) are associated with less youth IT. Policy enforcement provisions and compliance with policies are also essential components of effective IT policy implementation, but enforcement and compliance are currently variable and inadequate. We are currently coding 102 state IT law documents that were proposed, passed, or failed, and 4 accompanying regulatory documents, using a validated coding tool. Documents are being assessed for regulation stringency, type of ban, warnings provided, operator requirements, and enforcement provisions.

Additionally, results show that beginning in March, 2020, in addition to state-level mandates, there have been additional guidelines and restrictions for IT salons due to the COVID-19 pandemic.  From March 2020 to April 2020, 49 states and the District of Columbia required salons to close to customers and reopened between April 2020 and December 2020 with varying restrictions, such as requiring appointments for services, requiring patrons to wear masks in public areas, and increasing ventilation in salons. Enforcement of these pandemic restrictions is unclear. Restrictions likely resulted in permanent salon closures and lower IT rates in 2020 but it is unknown how IT rates will be affected long-term, especially given the option for home tanning. Additional descriptive results of the policy coding and COVID-19 restrictions will be presented.

These data will help determine whether certain bill characteristics such as stringency or enforcement requirements are associated with law passage or not or bill stringency has increased over time, and the initial impact of the pandemic on IT policies. These findings will have implications for IT behavior and, ultimately, skin cancer incidence.

This research is funded by the National Cancer Institute (CA244370; Dr. Carolyn Heckman, Rutgers University, and Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors collaborating on this conference poster include Julia Berteletti and Allyson Montalvo from Klein Buendel; and Anna Mitarotondo from Rutgers University.

COVID-19 Social Media Feed for Mothers and Teen Daughters

COVID-19 Social Media Feed for Mothers and Teen Daughters

Social media is a key channel for information on COVID-19 from government agencies, near-peers, and news media. The Health Chat team developed a social media feed that varied type of information source in posts on social distancing, COVID-19 vaccines, digital and media literacy, and family communication. Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel presented findings from the COVID-19 social media feed at the 43rd Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in Baltimore, MD, April 6-9 2022.

A total of 303 mothers with adolescent daughters from a previous study testing a social media campaign on indoor tanning were recruited in January 2021 and enrolled in a randomized single-factor design (government agencies v. near-peer parents v. news media) of a 9-week Facebook feed with four assessments (baseline, 3-week, 6-week, and 9-week follow-ups). The feed contained five posts per week based on social cognitive theory, transportation theory, and diffusion of innovation theory. Mothers reported on social distancing and vaccine intentions for self and daughters.

Using intention-to-treat analyses, mothers’ reports of social distancing by self and daughter declined over the 9-weeks. Daughters’ social distancing declined faster in the near-peer condition but less quickly in the government condition. Vaccine intentions increased over the nine weeks in all experimental condition. Baseline intentions seemed to moderate effect of condition on change in intentions. Mothers with initially high vaccine intentions (relative to moderate intentions) assigned to the government condition reported a less steep increase in intentions over time and had slightly lower intentions to vaccinate at the end of the study. Baseline credibility of the assigned information source predicted increased vaccine intentions. However, in the near-peer condition, mothers who assigned them lower as opposed to higher credibility showed increased vaccine intentions.

Theory-based posts emphasizing information from government agencies may have provided credible counterarguments against local jurisdictions relaxing pandemic restrictions that slowed declines in daughters’ social distancing. The near-peer sources may have been influential with mothers who did not expect them to convey the credible arguments supporting vaccines which they did in the experimental feed, consistent with violations of expectations theory in persuasive communication.

This research is funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors on this presentation include Dr. Sherry Pagoto and Joseph Divito from the University of Connecticut; Dr. Kim Henry from Colorado State University; and Dr. David Buller, Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Dr. Gill Woodall, Julia Berteletti, and Alishia Kinsey from Klein Buendel.

Dr. David Buller Presenting at SBM
Promoting Health Equity for Diverse Populations During a Pandemic

Promoting Health Equity for Diverse Populations During a Pandemic

Dr. Susan Loeb, PhD, RN, FGSA, FAAN, from the Pennsylvania State University College of Nursing and College of Medicine – and an active Klein Buendel research collaborator – presented on promoting health equity during the COVID-19 pandemic at 34th Annual Scientific Session of the Eastern Nursing Research Society on March 31 through April 1, 2022 in Providence, Rhode Island. The theme of the conference was “Charting the Path of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Through Nursing Science.”

The interruption of face-to-face human subjects’ research by universities and correctional institutions due to the COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated researchers to adopt alternative approaches for proceeding with their work. Adaptations and strategies that the research team employed to keep their study progressing forward in meaningful ways despite a protracted public health emergency were presented. A study focusing on the research and development of highly interactive e-learning modules to prepare incarcerated people to assist corrections staff in caring for people are older and/or approaching the end of life in prison served as an exemplar for the presentation. The study – the Inmates Care Project – is an STTR grant awarded to Klein Buendel by the National Institute on Aging (AG057239; Dr. Susan Loeb and Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Multiple Principal Investigators).

The theoretical framework for the study is the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Framework for Going to Full Scale. Identification of barriers and facilitators, re-envisioning how the team would restructure their day-to-day work, and preparing for the future are just a few of the essential steps that were taken. Examples of daily restructuring included a) approach to weekly team meetings; b) data collection protocols; c) advisory board meetings; and d) opportunities for networking and community building.

Key lessons learned through this experience included the a) importance of taking stock and seizing the opportunity to make investments in team member development; b) writing protocols that detail both in-person and virtual options for data collection to allow the team to pivot quickly when the next challenge arises; and c) reaching out to brainstorm with funding agency program officers, Institutional Review Board analysts, advisory board members, and other researchers from beyond your team.

Well-thought-out adaptations that are approved by funding agencies, offices of research protections, and other stakeholders in the research can result in scientifically sound, public health safe, and pragmatic approaches for moving ahead to remain research-productive, despite public health challenges. Taken together, these approaches can maintain study progress, and scientific integrity, as well as identify alternate ways to achieve study aims in a timeline necessarily relaxed, but as close as possible to the original plan.

Co-authors on the presentation and top poster included Dr. Erin Kitt-Lewis, Sherif Olanrewaju, and Leigh Casey from Penn State University; Dr. Valerie Myers and Savanna Olivas formerly from Klein Buendel; Jeannyfer Reither from Klein Buendel; and Katherine Aiken from the Penn State College of Health and Human Development.

Keeping Research Moving During a Pandemic

Keeping Research Moving During a Pandemic

Dr. Susan Loeb, PhD, RN, FGSA, FAAN, from the Pennsylvania State University Ross and Carol Nese College of Nursing – and an active Klein Buendel research collaborator – reflected on her research team’s experience in keeping research productive during the COVID-19 pandemic at the 17th Annual Custody & Caring Conference, November 4-5, 2021. The virtual conference was sponsored by the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. 

The cessation of face-to-face human subjects research by Universities and Departments of Corrections due to the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged researchers to seek alternative approaches for moving their work forward, albeit often not as originally conceived. Dr. Loeb’s presentation, and an accompanying award-winning poster led by Dr. Erin Kitt-Lewis from the Penn State Ross and Carol Nese College of Nursing, reported experiences from the Inmates Care Project,an STTR grant awarded to Klein Buendel by the National Institute on Aging (AG057239; Dr. Susan Loeb and Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Multiple Principal Investigators).

The Inmates Care study served as an exemplar to demonstrate strategies and adaptions employed to forge ahead in modified yet meaningful ways despite a protracted public health emergency. Inmates Care focuses on the research and development of computer-based training to prepare incarcerated persons to assist corrections staff in caring for people who have grown old behind bars and are approaching the end of their lives in prison. Identification of barriers and facilitators, re-envisioning how the team would restructure their day-to-day work, and preparing for the future were a few of the essential steps that were described.  

Key Lessons Learned

  • Seizing the opportunity to make investments in team member development;
  • Writing protocols that detail both in-person and virtual options for data collection to allow the team to pivot quickly when the next challenge arises; and
  • Reaching out to brainstorm with funding agency program officers, Institutional Review Board analysts, advisory board members, and other researchers beyond the team.

Such initiatives can result in scientifically sound, safe, and pragmatic solutions to keep research productive despite public health challenges. Taken together, these approaches can maintain study progress and scientific integrity, as well as identify alternate ways to achieve study aims in a timeline necessarily relaxed, but as close as possible to the original plan.

Co-authors on the presentation and 1st Place poster included Dr. Erin Kitt-Lewis, Sherif Olanrewaju, and Leigh Casey from Penn State University; Dr. Valerie Myers formerly from Klein Buendel; Jeannyfer Reither and Savanna Olivas from Klein Buendel; and Katherine Aiken from the Penn State College of Health and Human Development.

In addition to the paper and poster presentation, Dr. Loeb was also an invited panelist on a Closing Keynote titled, “Reflections on Forensic Mental Health and Correctional Nursing.”

Results of a Social Media Campaign to Prevent Indoor Tanning by Teens: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Results of a Social Media Campaign to Prevent Indoor Tanning by Teens: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Indoor tanning (IT) increases the risk of developing melanoma. A social media campaign to reduce mother’s permissiveness toward their teenage daughters’ IT was designed and evaluated by Dr. David Buller, Director of Research at Klein Buendel, and his research team. He gave a presentation on the Health Chat campaign at the virtual 71st Annual International Communication Association Conference, May 27-31, 2021.  

A total of 869 mothers of teenage daughters aged 14-17 in 34 states without bans on IT by minors were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial with two assessments, baseline and 12-month follow-up in 2017-19. A year-long adolescent health campaign was delivered to all participants. The intervention group received posts on preventing IT while the control group received posts about preventing prescription drug misuse. Mothers completed assessments of permissiveness for daughters to indoor tan, self-efficacy for refusing permission, communication with daughters about avoiding IT, attitudes and intentions toward IT, IT behavior, and support for state IT bans. Daughters (n=469; 54%) completed the assessments at baseline and at 12 months.  

At the 12-month follow-up, intervention-group mothers were less permissive of IT by daughters, reported more communication with daughters about avoiding IT, and had lower intentions to indoor tan than control-group mothers. Daughters confirmed intervention-group mothers communicated about IT and shared IT posts more than control-group mothers.  

Overall, a social media campaign may be an effective strategy to convince mothers to withhold permission for IT, which may help increase the effectiveness of state laws designed to reduce IT by minors by requiring parental permission.  

This research was funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Multiple Principal Investigators). Collaborating authors include Dr. Sherry Pagoto and Jessica Bibeau from the University of Connecticut; Dr. Kimberly Henry from Colorado State University; Dr. Katie Baker and Dr. Joel Hillhouse from East Tennessee State University; and Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel. 

Responding to COVID-19 Misinformation in a Social Media Feed

Responding to COVID-19 Misinformation in a Social Media Feed

Social media play a large role in disseminating news on COVID-19 but they also have spread misinformation. Strategies have been suggested for correcting misinformation from fact-checking to digital and media literacy. Dr. David Buller, Director of Research at Klein Buendel, is studying an approach to responding to misinformation in a social media feed on COVID-19 and the reactions of participants to responses. He gave a presentation on the research at the University of Connecticut’s virtual mHealth Conference, May 13-14, 2021.

A total of 303 mothers with adolescent daughters who had previously participated in a social media campaign on indoor tanning were recruited in January 2021 and enrolled in a single-factor design comparing information sources in a 9-week Facebook feed (government agencies v. near-peer parents v. news media) with four assessments (baseline, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 9 weeks). The social media feed addressed non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing, COVID-19 vaccination, digital and media literacy skills, and family communication about COVID-19. A community manager scheduled posts (5 per week), monitored reactions and comments, and responded to mothers’ comments that conveyed misinformation within 24 hours following a pre-established protocol. Misinformed comments were defined as being in opposition to recommendations of scientific authorities.

Of the 135 posts total (45 per group), 13% received comments containing misinformation (54 comments) and the community manager responded to 48 of the misinformed comments. Mothers posted the most misinformation in the near-peer parent group (27 comments); those in government agency group (17 comments) and news media groups (10 comments) posted less misinformation. Most comments with misinformation were in response to vaccination posts. The community manager’s responses to misinformation acknowledged mothers’ comments and then stated facts (such as efficacy and safety of vaccines) and cited evidence-based sources (such as the CDC) to refute the misinformation. The community manager also validated mothers’ concerns and confusion, if expressed in these posts, and occasionally stated personal experience or asked a follow-up question to promote dialogue. After responses were posted, ten original posters commented again and three reacted to the reply with “like/love”. Also, at times, other moms commented, reacted, or sent a private direct message related to response to misinformation.

Feeds on COVID-19 vaccines and non-pharmaceutical interventions can attract misinformation from individuals following them. Response strategies did not appear to generate a debate with mothers who posted misinformation, possibly because it conveyed an understanding of their positions or acknowledged their uncertainty or confusion rather than confronted them. Responses seemed to garner some supportive reactions from other mothers for the community manager, perhaps because the response made them feel supported to express their disagreement with the misinformation. These reactions could serve to reinforce the correction of misinformation for other followers of the social media feed.

This research is funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Multiple Principal Investigators). Collaborating authors include Dr. Sherry Pagoto and Joseph Divito from the University of Connecticut; and Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Dr. Gill Woodall, Julia Berteletti, and Alishia Kinsey from Klein Buendel.

Engagement with a Social Media Campaign for Mothers to Reduce Permissiveness for Daughters’ Indoor Tanning

Engagement with a Social Media Campaign for Mothers to Reduce Permissiveness for Daughters’ Indoor Tanning

Indoor tanning (IT) by adolescents increases lifetime risk of developing melanoma. Dr. David Buller, Director of Research at Klein Buendel, is leading an examination of a social media campaign for mothers to reduce their permissiveness toward indoor tanning by their teenage daughters. Dr. Buller presented findings on mothers’ engagement with the social media campaign – Health Chat – at the D.C. Health Communication (Virtual) Conference, April 23-24, 2021.

Several states require parents to consent or accompany minor children using IT facilities. Engagement of mothers with the social media campaign was examined to see if it modified campaign effects on mothers’ permissiveness for their teen daughters to indoor tan. Mothers (N=869) with daughters aged 14-17 were recruited in 34 states that do not ban IT by minors under 18 for a randomized trial with follow-ups at 12-month and 18-month post-randomization.

Mothers received an adolescent health social media campaign in Facebook private groups. Half of mothers were in a group in which the campaign included posts about preventing IT (intervention) and the other half, included posts on preventing prescription drug misuse (control). Engagement was measured by extracting reactions (e.g., like, sad, etc.) and comments posted by mothers to the campaign posts addressing IT or prescription drug misuse. Follow-up surveys assessed mothers’ permissiveness for daughters to indoor tan, i.e., whether mothers would permit daughters to indoor tan or facilitate them doing so (e.g., take them to a tanning facility). Daughters (n=469; 54.0%) were invited to complete baseline and follow-up assessments.

Mothers were mostly non-Hispanic white, college educated, and had household incomes exceeding $80,000. Nearly one-third had a family history of skin cancer and just over one quarter had high-risk skin types. At 12-month and 18-month follow-up, engagement with the social media campaign moderated the impact of treatment group on mothers’ permitting and facilitating IT by daughters. Specifically, among mothers who engaged with the campaign, mothers in the intervention group had lower permissiveness for IT and less facilitation of IT by their daughters than in the control group. These differences did not occur between treatment groups among mothers with no engagement in either permissiveness or facilitation at either follow-up.

Social media campaigns may be used to improve IT public policies by decreasing mothers’ permissiveness and increasing communication with daughters about avoiding IT. However, social media messages need to reach and engage mothers to be effective, in this case on convincing mothers to not permit or facilitate daughters’ request to indoor tan. Prevention messages, when interspersed in a social media feed on adolescent health, may reduce IT by female adolescents by improving compliance with public policies restricting minor access to IT facilities.

This research is funded by a grant and supplement from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, Multiple Principal Investigators). Collaborating authors include Dr. Sherry Pagoto and Jessica Bibeau from the University of Connecticut, Dr. Kimberly Henry from Colorado State University, Dr. Katie Baker and Dr. Joel Hillhouse from East Tennessee State University, and Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Julia Berteletti, and Lucia Liu from Klein Buendel.