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Month: February 2023

Adapting a Sun Safety Program for Low-Risk Outdoor Workers

Adapting a Sun Safety Program for Low-Risk Outdoor Workers

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the sun is an occupational hazard that causes skin cancer. Outdoor workers are disproportionately Hispanic and African American (AA). Though risk for skin cancer is greater for non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics and AAs are more likely to die from skin cancer as a result of delays in detection. Interviews (n=32) and an online survey (n=81) were conducted with a predominantly male, Hispanic, and AA sample of outdoor workers to inform the systematic adaptation of an existing evidence-based workplace sun safety program. The goal was to learn how to target messaging to underrepresented outdoor workers with darker skin types.

The interview sample was largely male (87%), Hispanic (78%), and AA (25%). Interviews were qualitatively reviewed to identify common themes. Most employees reported not getting sunburned while at work. Some reported skin darkening as a negative consequence. Sun protection is not a topic usually discussed with others but skin cancer is a concern. They reported engaging in sun protection, but not frequently wearing sunscreen. They were positive about receiving sun safety training at work and suggested it be combined with heat stroke prevention, which is a common training topic. The survey sample also was largely male (74%), Hispanic (25%), and AA (58%). Respondents reported an average of 2.66 sunburns in the past year, 85% occurring at work. They learned about sun protection most often from parents (46%), followed by employers (37%) and healthcare providers (37%). Only half (49%) reported being very confident they can practice sun safety. Limiting time outside during high UV (46%) and wearing sunscreen (35%) were the least used forms of sun protection reported. Participants in the interviews and survey listed avoiding sunburn, preventing skin darkening, and preventing heat stroke as benefits of sun safety training.

Overall, employees with darker skin types knew about UV protection and often put the knowledge into practice on the job. Motivation based on perceived risk for skin cancer and self-efficacy could be improved, especially with regard to sunscreen. Other appearance and health concerns, such as preventing heat illnesses in this period of climate-driven extreme heat events, may be highlighted to motivate sun protection among outdoor workers with darker skin types. Employers are an important source of sun safety information for these employees, since many do not talk about it with other people in their lives.

This formative research is supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under award number CA257778 (Mary Buller, Klein Buendel President, Principal Investigator). Collaborators from Klein Buendel include Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Ms. Julia Berteletti, and Ms. Irene Adjei.

EUROGIN HPV Panel Presentation

EUROGIN HPV Panel Presentation

Klein Buendel Senior Scientists, Dr. W. Gill Woodall and Dr. David Buller, presented two research projects in a panel discussion at the EUROGIN International Multidisciplinary HPV Congress on Feb 8-11, 2023 in Bilbao, Spain. The “Digital Interventions to Increase HPV Vaccination” panel featured four presentations and was moderated by Dr. Greg Zimet from the University of Indiana. Other Klein Buendel scientists and staff (at the time of abstract submission) contributing as co-authors included Dr. Barbara Walkosz, Ms. Marita Brooks, Ms. Lila Martinez, and Ms. Jeanny Reither. Klein Buendel employees’ names are bolded.

Presentation 1

Title: “Randomized Trials of HPV Vaccine Uptake Improvement: Web Apps for Parents and Young Adolescent Girls and Boys”

Presenter: W. Gill Woodall, PhD, Senior Scientist, Klein Buendel, Inc. Albuquerque, NM, USA

Co-authors: A. Kong, G. Zimet, D. Buller, L. Chilton, J. Reither, L. Martinez, M. Brooks

This presentation discussed the results of two randomized trials of parent-focused web apps to improve HPV vaccine uptake for young adolescents (ages 11-14).  For the first trial, the web app was tailored to parents and young adolescent girls, and in the second trial, the web app was tailored to parents and young adolescent boys. Results of both trials indicated significant web app impact on HPV vaccine uptake for adolescent girls and boys, as well as other vaccine uptake related variables.  The discussion included a consideration of web app content and tailoring to determine HPV vaccine uptake improvement.

Presentation 2

Title: “Successful technology-based rural patient HPV vaccination reminder intervention and social media assessment of strategies to reduce HPV vaccine misinformation”

Presenter: Deanna Kepka, PhD, MPH, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Co-authors: K. Christini, E. McGough, B. Gibson, E. Warner, H. Brandt

This presentation described a multi-level and multi-component intervention that included healthcare team training activities and technology-based HPV vaccination reminders. Missed opportunities for HPV vaccination declined significantly from the pre-intervention to the post-intervention period. Participants who recalled receipt of an electronically delivered vaccination reminder had higher unadjusted odds of scheduling a visit compared with those who did not recall receiving a reminder. Social media-delivered misinformation related to HPV vaccination is pervasive. The presenters also discussed new strategies to evaluate and reduce the impact of HPV vaccine misinformation in rural settings.

Presentation 3

Title: “Promoting HPV vaccination to emerging adults in rural communities in a multi-risk factor cancer prevention social media intervention”

Presenter: David Buller, PhD, Senior Scientist, Klein Buendel, Inc., Denver, CO, USA

Co-authors: A. Sussman, D. Kepka, W. G. Woodall, E. Warner, B. Walkosz

This presentation described an innovative social media campaign targeting six cancer risk factors, including HPV vaccination. It is being developed for the diverse population of adults aged 18-26 in rural counties in the Mountain West region of the U.S. Emerging adults obtain health information online far more than information from health care providers and other media. A framework for social media message development was presented based on social cognitive, self-determination, and diffusion of innovation theory. Misinformation, especially on vaccination, will be combatted by instructing emerging adults in digital and media and by using an epidemiological model of monitoring and quickly responding to correct misinformation. The campaign will be tested with a sample of 1000 emerging adults in a stepped-wedge quasi-experimental design.

Presentation 4

Title: “U.S. National Digital Point of Care Communication to Improve Uptake of HPV and Other Adolescent Vaccines in Clinic Settings”

Presenter: Judy Klein, BA, BS, President, UNITY Consortium, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Co-authors: G. Zimet, V. Agadi, C. Hu, A. Jaramillo

This presentation reported on a study that involved digital targeted adolescent vaccination infographics and videos widely disseminated to clinical practices throughout the U.S. Over 11,000 clinicians whose practices received these digital interventions (exposed condition) were matched to an equal number of non-exposed comparison practices matched on multiple practice characteristics. The outcomes of interest were the number of vaccine doses (Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis booster or Tdap, HPV, MenACWY, and MenB) administered to patients 11-18 years of age. The exposed clinics showed significant increases in administration of adolescent vaccines, including HPV vaccine, compared to the non-exposed clinics.

A Protocol for a Facebook Intervention for Young Melanoma Survivors and Their Families

A Protocol for a Facebook Intervention for Young Melanoma Survivors and Their Families

Individuals diagnosed with melanoma before the age of 40 (young-onset melanoma survivors) and their first-degree relatives (FDRs) are a growing population at risk for developing recurrent melanoma or new melanomas. Regular surveillance using clinical skin examination (CSE) and skin self-examination (SSE), and engagement in preventive behaviors including sun protection are recommended. Given the growing population of young melanoma survivors and their families who are at increased risk, it is surprising that no behavioral interventions have been developed and evaluated to improve risk-reduction behaviors.

In response, 16 researchers from ten institutions and organizations have developed an intervention and published its protocol in JMIR Research Protocols. Ultimately, the intervention is designed to improve skin cancer prevention and screening for young-onset melanoma survivors and their families. The authors believe the intervention’s delivery via Facebook will increase its impact because of the dissemination potential.

The randomized controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of a Facebook intervention providing information, goal setting, and peer support to increase CSE, SSE, and sun protection for young-onset melanoma survivors and their FDRs. A sample of over 500 melanoma survivors and their FDRs will be randomly assigned to either the Young Melanoma Family Facebook Group or another Facebook group control condition. Before and after the intervention, study participants will complete measures of CSE, SSE, sun protection, attitudes, and beliefs. An additional objective is to evaluate the efficacy of the Facebook interventions on perceived stress, physical activity, and healthy eating behaviors.

The authors plan to complete study enrollment by late 2023. Data analysis will employ multilevel modeling with family as the upper-level sampling unit and individual as the lower-level sampling unit. According to the authors, “Fixed effect predictors in these models will include condition, role, sex, all 2- and 3-way interactions, and covariates.” If effective, the Young Melanoma Family Facebook program could be disseminated by dermatology practices, public health and nonprofit melanoma organizations, and existing melanoma and skin cancer Facebook groups, expanding its reach.

Paper Authors and Affiliations

Dr. Sharon Manne, Dr. Carolyn Heckman, Sara Frederick, Mara Domider, and Marissa Grosso:  Behavioral Sciences, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Dr. Sherry Pagoto:  Department of Allied Health Sciences, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticutt

Dr. Susan Peterson:  Department of Behavioral Science, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas

Dr. Deborah Kashy:  College of Social Science, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

Dr. Adam Berger:  Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Dr. Christina Studts: Pediatrics – General Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado

Dr. Rosalyn Negron: College of Liberal Arts, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. David Buller: Klein Buendel, Inc, Golden, Colorado

Dr. Lisa Paddock and Alexandria Kulik: Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Joseph Gallo: Hackensack Meridian Jersey Shore Medical Center, Hackensack Meridian Health, Neptune City, New Jersey

Morgan Pesanelli: School of Public Health, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

This project was supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute to Rutgers University (CA221854; Dr. Sharon Manne, Principal Investigator). Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel Director of Research, is a Co-Investigator on the project.