Sun Safe Partners Online

Sun Safe Partners Online

Findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and preliminary impact of an online couple-focused intervention to improve sun protection behavior were published recently in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. The research team was led by Dr. Sharon Manne from the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. Collaborators from Michigan State University, the University of Connecticut, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Klein Buendel rounded out the research team.

At the time of the study, Sun Safe Partners Online was a web-based intervention with four individual-focused modules and four couple-focused modules. A total of 75 couples who reported suboptimal levels of sun protection were randomly assigned to receive either Sun Safe Partners Online or a generic sun safety education intervention. Participants were recruited through Facebook advertising, resulting in rapid enrollment and higher acceptance than was evident in a previous trial testing telephone and print intervention. Feasibility was assessed by enrollment, engagement, survey completion, module completion, and module satisfaction. Participants also completed pre/post surveys assessing sun protection, sun exposure on weekends, sunburn incidence, and attitudes toward sun protection. A full description of the methods, analyses, and effects of the study can be found in the publication.

Sun Safe Partners Online was found to be an innovative strategy for engaging adults in sun safety. The authors conclude that “a couple-focused intervention may hold promise as a way to improve sun protection behaviors beyond interventions focused solely on individuals by leveraging the concern, collaboration, and support among intimate partners and addressing relationship-based barriers to sun protection.”

This pilot research was supported by Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey Institutional funds.

Testing The Impact Of Social Media Messaging On COVID-19 Mitigation

Testing The Impact Of Social Media Messaging On COVID-19 Mitigation

Klein Buendel researchers and collaborators are launching a supplemental study to test the impact of social media messaging on COVID-19 mitigation, such as social distancing behaviors and vaccination, in a sample of mothers with daughters aged 14-17 years. The study, which is funded by the National Cancer Institute, will examine the impact of different sources frequently providing COVID-19 and vaccination information via Facebook.

The Internet, including social media, is a preferred channel for health information for many Americans (1,2). At their best, social media provide flexible, responsive, and accessible platforms for distributing information to the public from trusted voices such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes of Health to promote needed health behaviors (3,4). Social media can improve information dissemination and personal relevance (8-12), create social support and collective action (13,14), and detect and respond to emerging issues and trends such as the COVID-19 response (5,6). At their worst, social media circulate inaccurate, misleading, unsupported, and harmful information (5,7), which may be especially detrimental in this age of filter bubbles separating Americans into like-minded groups (5).

Following a pretest survey, mothers will be randomly assigned to one of three Facebook private groups varying in types of source in the COVID-19 social media posts – government health agencies, near-peer parents and family members, or news media. Social media platforms are directing users to health organizations (6) but other sources may be credible with users, as well. The private groups prevent experimental contamination while delivering the social media feed. Mothers will complete a posttest at 3-, 6-, and 9-weeks post-randomization. The primary outcomes, assessed at pretest and all posttests, will be social distancing behaviors by self and daughter and intention to vaccinate self and daughter for COVID-19 (if a vaccine becomes available). Secondary outcomes are mother-daughter communication about COVID-19 mitigation behaviors and vaccination, theoretic antecedents of mitigation behaviors and vaccination, media literacy, and COVID-19 misinformation. Individual differences among mothers and other covariates will be measured at baseline or obtained from the parent trial. Engagement with the social media feed will be recorded.

This research is funded by an administrative supplement to a grant from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel, and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, University of Connecticut, Multiple Principal Investigators). Collaborators include Dr. Katie Baker, Dr. Joel Hillhouse, and Jessica Bibeau from East Tennessee State University; Dr. Kim Henry from Colorado State University; and Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel.


1. Purcell K; Pew Research Center. The State Of Online Video. Available at: Published June 3 2010. Accessed May 22, 2020.

2. Majority of Adults Look Online for Health Informaiton. FactTank: News in the Numbers. February 1, 2013. Accessed May 22, 2020.

3. Veil SR, Buehner T, Palenchar MJ. A work-in-process literature review: incorporating social media in risk and crisis communication. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 2011;19(2):110-122.

4. Breland JY, Quintiliani LM, Schneider KL, May CN, Pagoto S. Social media as a tool to increase the impact of public health research. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(12):1890-1891.

5. Sutton J. Health communication trolls and bots versus public health agencies’ trusted voices. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(10):1281-1282.

6. Merchant RM, Lurie N. Social media and emergency preparedness in response to novel coronavirus [published online ahead of print March 24, 2020]. JAMA. 2020 doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4469

7. Broniatowski DA, Jamison AM, Qi S, et al. Weaponized health communication: Twitter bots and Russian trolls amplify the vaccine debate. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(10):1378-1384.

8. Valle CG, Tate DF, Mayer DK, Allicock M, Cai J. A randomized trial of a Facebook-based physical activity intervention for young adult cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2013;7(3):355-368.

9. Young SD, Cumberland WG, Lee SJ, Jaganath D, Szekeres G, Coates T. Social networking technologies as an emerging tool for HIV prevention: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(5):318-324.

10. Pagoto S, Baker K, Griffith J, et al. Engaging moms on teen indoor tanning through social media: protocol of a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols. 2016;5:e228. doi: 10.2196/resprot.6624. PMCID: PMC5147712

11. Witte K. Putting the fear back in fear appeals: the extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs. 1992;59:329-349.

12. Rogers RW. A Protection Motivation Theory of fear appeals and attitude change1. J Psychol. 1975;91(1):93-114. doi: 10.1080/00223980.1975.9915803

13. Rogers RW. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: a revised theory of protection motivation. In: Cacioppo, J, Petty, R, eds. Social Psychophysiology. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1983:153-176.

14. Woodall GW, Starling R, Buller DB, Kong A, Wheeler C. Beta-test and randomized trial results for GoHealthyGirls: a website for HPV vaccine adoption. 29th Meeting of the International Papillomavirus Conference; August 20-25; Seattle, Washington.

Sales of Recreational Cannabis to Alcohol-Intoxicated Customers

Sales of Recreational Cannabis to Alcohol-Intoxicated Customers

To prevent harm, some U.S. states have laws prohibiting the sale of recreational marijuana to alcohol-intoxicated customers. In a recent publication in the International Journal of Drug Policy, Klein Buendel researchers and collaborators evaluated an online responsible marijuana vendor (RMV) training program – Train to Tend – and its performance at deterring sales to apparently alcohol-intoxicated customers in recreational cannabis stores. Much like the training of responsible alcohol sales practices, RMV training may prove beneficial for helping to keep customers and communities safe.

One hundred fifty stores from Colorado, Oregon, and Washington were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial. Half of the stores were randomly selected to receive Train to Tend training. One of the five online training modules addressed recognizing signs of impairment and intoxication, refusing sales to intoxicated patrons, and understanding the risks of driving under the influence of cannabis.

The evaluation employed pseudo-patron pairs, one of which displayed obvious signs of alcohol intoxication. The refusal of cannabis sales to the pseudo-intoxicated buyers was very low. In some cases, store personnel made comments or expressed suspicion towards buyers’ behavior, but continued with the sale nonetheless. Refusal rates between intervention and control stores were not significantly different. Overall, responsible marijuana vending practices alone did not appear to influence the reduction of marijuana sales to customers with obvious signs of alcohol intoxication. A full description of the methods, results, and discussion can be found in the publication.

This research was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (DA038933; Dr. David Buller, Principal Investigator). Co-authors on the publication include Dr. Robert Saltz from the Prevention Research Center at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation in California; Dr. Gary Cutter from the University of Alabama, Birmingham; and Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Andrew Grayson, and Sierra Svendsen from Klein Buendel.

Using Machine Learning Techniques to Predict Sunburn Risk in Outdoor Exercisers

Using Machine Learning Techniques to Predict Sunburn Risk in Outdoor Exercisers

In response to recreational UV exposure being associated with skin cancer (1), Julia Berteletti, MSW, and David Buller, PhD, of Klein Buendel have launched a new research project to harness technology to increase individual’s sun safety during outdoor physical activity. The title of the new project is “Using Retrospective and Real-Time Physical Activity Tracking to Predict Risk of Sunburn in Outdoor Exercisers on Strava.”

The Strava Sun Project is based on evidence that individuals who engage in more physical activity have a higher prevalence of sunburn (2, 3-6), a proximal biomarker of melanoma risk, and melanoma is positively associated with physical activity (7). For some athletes, forgetting to apply sunscreen (8,9) or not liking its feel while engaged in physical activity can be barriers to sun protection (8,10). An expert meeting hosted by the National Cancer Institute identified sun safety during physical activity as a priority research area (11) and the U.S. Surgeon General prioritized strategies for coordinating messages on sun safety and physical activity in the Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer (12).

Online and mobile technologies for tracking physical activity have exploded over the past decade. Many Americans wear activity trackers or GPS-enabled devices, such as  Fitbit and Garmin, and upload their physical activity data to websites/mobile apps. Strava, an activity tracking app and social networking site for athletes of all abilities, is one of the most popular. Millions share their own activities and follow and comment on physical activity by other users in their network. The goal of this project is to increase skin cancer prevention among a high-risk population, adults who engage in outdoor physical activity by establishing feasibility of interfacing sun protection advice with the Strava website/mobile app.

Specifically, the research will create an algorithm that predicts when individuals are likely to be engaged in physical activity outdoors, and delivers sun safety advice tailored to time, location, and personal risk (for example, skin sun sensitivity). The Strava Sun program will obtain user data and deliver ecologically-valid sun safety advice by utilizing Strava’s open-source Applications Programming Interface (API) and location-based advice algorithms developed by Klein Buendel for the sun safety mobile app, sunZapp (13). Machine learning techniques will be employed to develop an algorithm using Strava activities to predict high-risk behavior, such as outdoor physical activity when UV levels are high and sun safety is advised.

Overall, a sun protection interface for the Strava platform will allow for the identification of a large population of Americans at high risk for skin cancer who routinely engage in physical activity, often outdoors with high-risk sun exposure, and reach them with sun safety advice they may not seek on their own to motivate them to practice sun safety during outdoor activities.

This project is funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (CA241637; Dr. David Buller and Ms. Julia Berteletti, Multiple Principal Investigators). Co-Investigators include Dr. Kim Henry and Dr. Chuck Anderson from Colorado State University. Other collaborators include Dr. Sherry Pagoto from the University of Connecticut and Mr. Scott Camichael, a recent software engineer at Strava. Developers at Klein Buendel will produce the API database and program.


  1. Moehrle M. Outdoor sports and skin cancer. Clin Dermatol. 2008;26(1):12-15.
  2. Holman DM, Ding H, Guy GP, Jr., Watson M, Hartman AM, Perna FM. Prevalence of Sun Protection Use and Sunburn and Association of Demographic and Behaviorial Characteristics With Sunburn Among US Adults. JAMA Dermatol. 2018;154(5):561-568.
  3. Holman DM, Berkowitz Z, Guy GP, Jr., Hartman AM, Perna FM. The association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and sunburn among U.S. adults – National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Prev Med. 2014;63:6-12.
  4. Hall HI, Saraiya M, Thompson T, Hartman A, Glanz K, Rimer B. Correlates of sunburn experiences among U.S. adults: results of the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Public Health Rep. 2003;118(6):540-549.
  5. Coups EJ, Manne SL, Heckman CJ. Multiple skin cancer risk behaviors in the U.S. population. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34(2):87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.09.032
  6. Lawler S, Sugiyama T, Owen N. Sun exposure concern, sun protection behaviors and physical activity among Australian adults. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(9):1009-1014.
  7. Moore SC, Lee IM, Weiderpass E, et al. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(6):816-825.
  8. Petty KN, Knee CR, Joseph AK. Sunscreen use among recreational cyclists: how intentions predict reported behavior. J Health Psychol. 2012;18(3):439-447.
  9. Wysong A, Gladstone H, Kim D, Lingala B, Copeland J, Tang JY. Sunscreen use in NCAA collegiate athletes: Identifying targets for intervention and barriers to use. Prev Med. 2012;55(5):493-496.
  10. Berndt NC, O’Riordan DL, Winkler E, McDermott L, Spathonis K, Owen N. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors’ sunscreen use. Health Educ Behav. 2011;38(1):6-14.
  11. Geller AC, Jablonski NG, Pagoto SL, et al. Interdisciplinary perspectives on sun safety. JAMA Dermatol. 2018;154(1):88-92. PMC5839662.
  12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General;2014.
  13. Heron KE, Smyth JM. Ecological momentary interventions: incorporating mobile technology into psychosocial and health behaviour treatments. Br J Health Psychol. 2010;15(Pt 1):1-39.

Dr. Robert Dellavalle Honored by Melanoma Research Foundation

Dr. Robert Dellavalle Honored by Melanoma Research Foundation

Robert P. Dellavalle, MD, PhD, MSPH, is being honored with the first Excellence in Prevention Award from the Melanoma Research Foundation at the 2020 Denver Virtual Gala on August 6, 2020. Dr. Dellavalle, a longtime Klein Buendel research collaborator, is a Professor of Dermatology and Public Health at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, and chief of the Dermatology Service at the Rocky Mountain Regional Veterans Administration Hospital in Aurora, Colorado.

Dr. Dellavalle is a lifelong melanoma awareness advocate and leads a prominent research laboratory focused on skin disease prevention and evidence-based dermatology. His laboratory has investigated skin cancer chemoprevention both in vitro and in clinical practice. Their key discoveries include ranking the most disabling skin diseases in the world and in the United States. The laboratory was also the first to summarize global indoor UV tanning age restriction laws, measure compliance with tanning age restrictions, and call for a tax on UV tanning. The research showed that UV tanning salons target minors using advertisements in high school newspapers and that tanning salon operators do not adequately inform customers of the health risks. These discoveries were featured on national television network nightly news and in the U.S. Surgeon General’s recent Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer.

Currently, Dr. Dellavalle is a Multiple Principal Investigator on Sun Safety Ink!: A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for the Tattoo Community (CA206569) and he is a consultant on Using Technology to Scale-up an Occupational Sun Protection Policy Program (Sun Safe Workplaces Technology) (CA134705). Both are Klein Buendel research projects funded by the National Cancer Institute. Sun Safety Ink! is a skin cancer prevention program for tattoo artists and their clients and Sun Safe Workplaces Technology is a scale-up of an occupational sun protection program for State Department of Transportation employees, who work outdoors. Dr. Dellavalle works closely with Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel on these projects.

Dr. Dellavalle has multiple publications in the highest impact scientific journals including Science, Journal of the American Medical Association, and Nature. He is an affiliate of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Society of Investigative Dermatology, and the Colorado Dermatologic Society. He is also the coordinating editor of the Cochrane Skin Review, that aims to accept for review any aspect of skin disease management which it feels will be of value to professionals or to lay people with an interest in skin disease. Since 2010 he has co-chaired the Colorado Skin Cancer Task Force promoting sun safety and increasing awareness for skin cancer prevention across Colorado at public community events, employee conferences, and school meetings.

Congratulations, Dr. Dellavalle on a well deserved award!

Bilingual Web App to Improve HPV Vaccine Uptake

Bilingual Web App to Improve HPV Vaccine Uptake

Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Klein Buendel Senior Scientist, presented findings from the Vacteens/Vacuna Adolescente Project at the virtual 33rd International Papillomavirus Conference & Basic Science, Clinical and Public Health Workshops (IPVC), July 20-24, 2020.

The uptake of HPV vaccine in the United States remains substantially below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% series completion, particularly for young adolescents, when immunogenic response to the vaccine is strongest. Physician and clinic-based interventions have shown some limited positive effect on vaccine uptake. However, parental barriers to HPV vaccination may be addressed by digital interventions, such as smartphone applications, that are tailored to their concerns. Potential parental barriers include confusion, uncertainty, and misinformation about HPV vaccine schedule, safety, and effectiveness.

A research project was conducted to test whether digital information delivered to parents in a community setting may be an effective way to help reach HPV vaccine uptake goals in the United States. Diffusion of Innovations Theory principles were used to guide the development of the Vacteens/Vacuna Adolescente mobile app in English and Spanish. The app was designed  to encourage HPV vaccination in New Mexico, an ethnically-diverse state with insufficient vaccine uptake. Parents and adolescents were recruited from pediatric clinics in New Mexico to a randomized trial evaluating the mobile web app, which focused on daughters (ages 11-14). Parents were randomized to receive either the Vacteens/VacunaAdolescente mobile web app or the usual and customary online HPV vaccination pamphlet from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adolescent vaccine records were collected for daughters at a 9-month assessment point. Vaccine uptake results from the trial found that parents who received the Vacteens/VacunaAdolescente web app were significantly more likely to have their daughters vaccinated.

This research was funded by grants from PCORI and the National Cancer Institute (CA210125; Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Principal Investigator). Dr. Woodall’s collaborators include Dr. Alberta Kong and Dr. Lance Chilton from the University of New Mexico, Dr. Greg Zimet from Indiana University, and Jeannyfer Reither, Dr. David Buller, and Dr. Valerie Myers from Klein Buendel.



Dr. David Buller, Director of Research from Klein Buendel, presented findings from the Health Chat Project at the virtual 33rd International Papillomavirus Conference & Basic Science, Clinical and Public Health Workshops (IPVC), July 20-24, 2020.

Parental decisions on HPV vaccine uptake in the United States are influenced by information and misinformation about the vaccine in social media. Mothers’ reports on vaccination of their adolescent daughters were examined in an evaluation of a social media adolescent health campaign.

For this intervention, 881 mothers from 34 states were recruited into a randomized controlled trial evaluating a social media adolescent health campaign. Eligibility criteria included having a daughter aged 14-17, in state without a complete ban on indoor tanning by minors, using a Facebook account one or more times a week, completing the baseline survey, and joining the Facebook group. The campaign included didactic and narrative posts some of which promoted HPV vaccination, such as the need for vaccine, percent of adolescents vaccinated, and how HPV vaccines are decreasing infection rates. It was delivered through two Facebook private groups differing on inclusion of indoor tanning or prescription drug mis-use posts .

At baseline, nearly two-thirds of mothers reported that their daughters had been vaccinated for HPV. HPV vaccine uptake increased during the 12-month social media campaign. At the 12-month posttest, nearly 8% more mothers reported that daughters had been vaccinated for HPV. The increase appeared to be largest in completion of the multi-dose series. Uptake increased among older and more educated mothers and those with a family history of skin cancer. Mothers’ reports of HPV vaccine uptake were corroborated by daughters. Effective strategies are needed in social media to promote HPV vaccines and counter misinformation about and resistance to them.

This research is funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute (CA192652; Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel, and Dr. Sherry Pagoto, University of Connecticut, Multiple Principal Investigators). Collaborators include Jessica Oleski from the University of Connecticut, Dr. Katie Baker and Dr. Joel Hillhouse from East Tennessee State University, Dr. Kim Henry from Colorado State University, and Dr. Barbara Walkosz and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel.

Collaborator Spotlight:
Barbara McCrady, PhD

Collaborator Spotlight:
Barbara McCrady, PhD

Barbara McCrady, PhD, is a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of New Mexico, a licensed psychologist, a specialist in the treatment of alcohol abuse, and a long-time research collaborator with Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Senior Scientist at Klein Buendel.

The research project that Dr. McCrady and Dr. Woodall are currently working on together is entitled “Smartphone Help for DWI Offenders and their Families: A B-SMART App.” B-SMART is a smartphone app intervention designed to extend the drunken driving cessation initially provided by an interlock ignition device. It involves participation of a concerned family member of DWI (driving while intoxicated) offenders by providing coping skills, communication skills, and strategies to help avoid a subsequent DWI. This study is unique because it involves a family member in supporting the DWI offender to not drink and drive, and the use of smartphone technology to make family support immediate, accessible, and diffusible. Dr. McCrady developed the content for the intervention based on empirically validated couples therapy techniques for those with alcohol use disorders.

In her research, Dr. McCrady has focused on conjoint therapy, approaches that involve the social network, cognitive behavioral therapy, mutual help groups, and therapies for women. In her words: “As a clinical scientist, the overall goal of my work is to conduct research to test innovative treatments and treatment delivery systems for persons affected substance use disorders, and to better understand the mechanisms by which these treatments work. An ultimate goal is to improve clinical practice through the use of empirically supported assessment and treatment approaches.”

Dr. McCrady has published more than 250 refereed papers, books, book chapters, and commentaries. She has also published four treatment manuals and client workbooks with Elizabeth Epstein (a member of the B-SMART Project Expert Advisory Board) on empirically supported treatments for couple’s therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorders. She has a second edition of a textbook entitled, Addictions: A Comprehensive Guidebook, published by Oxford University Press.

She is the past Director of the Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions (CASAA) at the University of New Mexico, and is currently the Chair of the Diversity Committee for the Research Society on Alcoholism and the Vice President for the Research Advisory Committee of the Research Society on Alcoholism.

Investigation of Indoor Tanning Policy Enactment

Investigation of Indoor Tanning Policy Enactment

Klein Buendel is collaborating with Dr. Carolyn Heckman and her team from Rutgers University on a new research project to study the process of translating indoor tanning policy efforts into stringent legislation and compliance, and the effects of the legislation on reduced indoor tanning by minors in the United States.

Indoor tanning is a well-established cause of skin cancer (1-8,10). Most tanners begin indoor tanning as teens or young adults (22). In order to reduce indoor tanning and protect this at-risk population, indoor tanning is currently being regulated in two ways. First, some states restrict access by minors or require parental consent or accompaniment (11). Second, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempts to minimize harm from indoor tanning devices with precautions like protective eyewear and session duration limits (12).  Recent evidence suggests that more stringent indoor tanning laws such as age bans (vs. parent consent laws or no law) are associated with less youth indoor tanning (15,16). Unfortunately, enforcement and compliance with laws are variable and inadequate (9,17-21). Although underutilized (13), legislation such as age restrictions and taxation has been quite successful in decreasing engagement in other risky behaviors such as smoking (14).

The goals of this five-year research project are to (1) clarify the indoor tanning legislation adoption process, (2) employ a pseudo-patron assessment, national survey, and archival data to investigate legislation implementation, and (3) integrate data from the first two aims and external data to assess economic effects relevant to policy sustainability of indoor tanning stringency, enforcement, and compliance.

Health-related policy adoption and promotion is an effective, yet underutilized, strategy for health promotion. To protect the public from melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, government bodies have begun to enact legislation to restrict minor access to indoor tanning and minimize harm from indoor tanning devices. In order to contribute to the currently limited evidence base for future policy decision making and sustainability and to accelerate reductions in indoor tanning and sunburn, this project will address policy characteristics associated with regulation compliance, cost-benefits of these policies, and barriers and facilitators of policy adoption.

This research project is funded by the National Cancer Institute (CA244370; Dr. Carolyn Heckman, Rutgers University, and Dr. David Buller, Klein Buendel, Multiple Principal Investigators). Collaborators include Dr. Rich Meenan from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research; Dr. Jared Stapleton from the University of Kentucky; Dr. Shawna Hudson, Dr. Cristine Delnevo, and Dr. Kevin Schroth from Rutgers University; and Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel.


  1. Lergenmuller S, Ghiasvand R, Robsahm TE, et al. Association of Lifetime Indoor Tanning and Subsequent Risk of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma. JAMA dermatology. 2019:1-9.
  2. O’Sullivan DE, Brenner DR, Villeneuve PJ, et al. Estimates of the current and future burden of melanoma attributable to ultraviolet radiation in Canada. Preventive medicine. 2019;122:81-90.
  3. Gandini S, Dore JF, Autier P, Greinert R, Boniol M. Epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity of sunbed use and of efficacy of preventive measures. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. 2019;33 Suppl 2:57-62.
  4. Suppa M, Gandini S. Sunbeds and melanoma risk: time to close the debate. Current opinion in oncology. 2019;31(2):65-71.
  5. O’Sullivan DE, Brenner DR, Demers PA, Villeneuve PJ, Friedenreich CM, King WD. Indoor tanning and skin cancer in Canada: A meta-analysis and attributable burden estimation. Cancer epidemiology. 2019;59:1-7.
  6. Boniol M, Autier P, Boyle P, Gandini S. Cutaneous melanoma attributable to sunbed use: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ : British Medical Journal. 2012;345:e4757.
  7. Colantonio S, Bracken MB, Beecker J. The association of indoor tanning and melanoma in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2014;70(5):847-857.e818.
  8. El Ghissassi F, Baan R, Straif K, et al. A review of human carcinogens–part D: radiation. The Lancet Oncology. 2009;10(8):751-752.
  9. Reimann J, McWhirter JE, Papadopoulos A, Dewey C. A systematic review of compliance with indoor tanning legislation. BMC public health. 2018;18(1):1096.
  10. Burgard B, Schoepe J, Holzschuh I, et al. Solarium use and risk for malignant melanoma: meta-analysis and evidence-based medicine systematic review. Anticancer research. 2018;38(2):1187-1199.
  11. National Council of State Legislatures. Indoor Tanning Restrictions for Minors: A State by State Comparison. Published 2018. Updated 11/2/2018. Accessed.
  12. Food and Drug Administration. Sunlamp products and ultraviolet lamps intended for use in sunlamp products. In. Vol 8. Silver Spring, MD: Food and Drug Administration; 2018.
  13. Abrams DB, Graham AL, Levy DT, Mabry PL, Orleans CT. Boosting population quits through evidence-based cessation treatment and policy. American journal of preventive medicine. 2010;38(3 Suppl):S351-363. PMCID: PMC4515751.
  14. Brownson RC, Haire-Joshu D, Luke DA. SHAPING THE CONTEXT OF HEALTH: A Review of Environmental and Policy Approaches in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Annual Review of Public Health. 2006;27(1):341-370.
  15. Guy GP, Berkowitz Z, Jones SE, Holman DM, Garnett E, Watson M. Trends in indoor tanning among US high school students, 2009-2013. JAMA dermatology. 2015;151(4):448-450.
  16. Qin J, Holman DM, Jones SE, Berkowitz Z, Guy Jr GP. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Prevalence of Indoor Tanning Among US High School Students, 2009–2015. American journal of public health. 2018;108(7):951-956.
  17. Driscoll DW, Darcy J. Indoor Tanning Legislation: Shaping Policy and Nursing Practice. Pediatric nursing. 2015;41(2).
  18. Gosis B, Sampson BP, Seidenberg AB, Balk SJ, Gottlieb M, Geller AC. Comprehensive evaluation of indoor tanning regulations: a 50-state analysis, 2012. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2014;134(3):620-627.
  19. Mayer JA, Hoerster KD, Pichon LC, Rubio DA, Woodruff SI, Forster JL. Peer Reviewed: Enforcement of State Indoor Tanning Laws in the United States. Preventing chronic disease. 2008;5(4).
  20. Williams MS, Buhalog B, Blumenthal L, Stratman EJ. Tanning salon compliance rates in states with legislation to protect youth access to UV tanning. JAMA dermatology. 2018;154(1):67-72.
  21. Woodruff SI, Pichon LC, Hoerster KD, Forster JL, Gilmer T, Mayer JA. Measuring the stringency of states’ indoor tanning regulations: instrument development and outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2007;56(5):774-780.
  22. Tripp MK, Watson M, Balk SJ, Swetter SM, Gershenwald JE. State of the science on prevention and screening to reduce melanoma incidence and mortality: the time is now. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2016;66(6):460-480.

Effects of an Online Responsible Vendor Training for Recreational Marijuana Stores

Effects of an Online Responsible Vendor Training for Recreational Marijuana Stores

The Train To Tend® responsible marijuana vendor (RMV) training research team recently published results from online RMV training on responsible sales for recreational marijuana store personnel as an abstract for the Annals of Behavioral Medicine. The Train To Tend research team is led by Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel who would have presented the findings at the 41st Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in San Francisco, had the conference been held as planned.

Recreational marijuana regulations have been designed, in part, to ensure that cannabis products are sold only to adults over the age of 21 who provide state-approved identification (ID). The Train to Tend online RMV training was developed with input from state regulators and recreational marijuana store personnel to train store staff. The training consists of five modules with interactive learning elements that cover state laws, ID checking, health effects of marijuana, driving under the influence, refusal of sales to intoxicated customers, and store processes, such as product labeling and tracking.

A sample of 175 recreational marijuana stores in Colorado and Washington were selected for a randomized controlled trial with sales to pseudo-underage customers. Of the 175 stores, 75 were assigned to the control condition (usual and customary training) and the remaining 100 were given the online RMV training. At baseline, sales of marijuana to pseudo-underage buyers were refused at 93% of 349 visits to stores across the two states. After adjusting for store characteristics, there was no difference in change in refusal rates between treatment groups from baseline, to a 3-month posttest, or a 9-month posttest. For the intervention stores, training uptake was not related to refusal rate and nearly all recreational cannabis stores refused sales to young patrons who failed to produce appropriate ID.

This research was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (DA038933; Dr. David Buller, Principal Investigator). Co-authors include Dr. Robert Saltz from the Prevention Research Center at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation; Dr. Gary Cutter from the University of Alabama, Birmingham; and Dr. Gill Woodall, Andrew Grayson, Mary Buller, Sierra Svendsen, and Lucia Liu from Klein Buendel.