Among prevention strategies for driving while intoxicated (DWI), responsible beverage service (RBS) training has been effective in some cases. A research team from Klein Buendel and the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) reported on the results of a pilot project to create an in-service professional development social media component for the online evidence-based RBS training, WayToServe®, at the 46th Annual Research Society on Alcohol Scientific Meeting held in Bellevue, Washington on June 24-28, 2023.
In-service support beyond initial RBS training may counter management disinterest or resistance to RBS. A prototype of the WayToServe Plus in-service professional development social media component was produced by the authors. It contained 51 social media posts on advanced RBS skills training (such as home delivery), experienced servers supporting new servers (such as tips and tricks), professionalism (such as handling disruptive customer), and basic management procedures (such as house policies). Messages were intended to (a) increase confidence and motivation to implement RBS methods, (b) create a professional community of servers supporting RBS actions, and (c) prevent degradation of RBS skills and motivation. Thirty-six (36) posts contained text, graphics, and/or links, 14 had TikTok-style videos, and one presented an interactive learning activity from the WayToServe training.
One hundred eleven (111) alcohol servers who completed WayToServe training in New Mexico or Washington State participated in a 4-week pilot test. Participants were enrolled in either a Facebook private group with the WayToServe Plus feed and online posttest survey (n=60 servers) or in a control group with the posttest survey only (n=51 servers). WayToServe Plus posts were posted once a day, Monday to Friday. All servers in the WayToServe Plus group (100%) followed the feed for all 4 weeks; 83.3% viewed a post; and 46.7% reacted/commented on a post. WayToServe Plus servers expressed increased self-efficacy for RBS practices and response efficacy for RBS reducing DWI compared to control servers. Servers felt WayToServe Plus was appropriate and usable, and 77.9% were likely to use it in the future.
In-service professional development delivered over social media is feasible with alcohol servers and has the potential to maintain and support RBS techniques during intervals between state-approved RBS training.
This research was supported by a grant to Klein Buendel from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA029364; W. Gill Woodall and David Buller, Multiple Principal Investigators). Additional authors on the conference poster include Dr. Robert Saltz from the PIRE Prevention Research Center in Berkley, California, and Ms. Lila Martinez from Klein Buendel.
B-SMART: RESULTS OF A WEB APP FOR DWI OFFENDER FAMILIES
Driving while intoxicated (DWI) remains a preventable source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The Ignition Interlock Device (IID) requires a driver to blow into a breathalyzer installed in a vehicle to establish sobriety and reduces drunk driving while installed. The use of IIDs has become widespread. Most states now require DWI offenders to install IIDs in their cars.
However, once IIDs are removed, DWI recidivism levels return to those similar to offenders who had no IID installed. The B-SMART app has been systematically developed for DWI offenders and their Concerned Family Members (CFMs) to extend non-intoxicated driving beyond the IID installation period.
B-SMART Module Topics
Life with the Interlock – orientation to Ignition Interlock Devices
Family processes to support changes in drinking
Effective communication skills for families
Finding family activities that do not involve alcohol
Results of a randomized trial of the B-SMART app on a variety of alcohol consumption, IID, and family communication variables were reported by Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Klein Buendel Senior Scientist, at the 46th Annual Research Society on Alcohol Scientific Meeting held in Bellevue, Washington on June 24-28, 2023.
Study participants, who were pairs of DWI Offenders and CFMs, were randomly assigned to receive the B-SMART web app or an available IID information page from the New Mexico Department of Transportation (Usual and Customary/UC condition). Participants were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months.
Analyses of alcohol consumption variables yielded two results on alcohol quantity frequency with available data. For average drinks per day during the last 30 days at the 3-month assessment, a near significant between groups difference was detected such that client participants in the UC group reported significantly higher drinks per day when drinking than B-SMART intervention client participants. A second alcohol consumption effect was found for reported average drinks per week, where UC participants reported increasing average weekly drinking from baseline to 3-month follow-up, while intervention participants reported no significant change in average drinks per week from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Results suggest that the B-SMART app may improve outcomes for DWI offender families.
This research was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA022850; Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Principal Investigator). Dr. Woodall’s scientific collaborators include Dr. Barbara McCrady and Dr. Vern Westerberg from the University of New Mexico, and Ms. Julia Berteletti, Ms. Marita Brooks, and Ms. Lila Martinez from Klein Buendel.
Midlife and older adults exhibit a rapid increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) which is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder recently established the clinical efficacy of high-resistance inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST), a novel form of physical training with minimal barriers to adherence, for lowering SBP in midlife and older adults in a clinical trial with regular clinic-based, researcher-supervised training.
A new Phase I STTR project seeks to leverage the growing field of digital health technologies by taking the first steps in developing a feasible and acceptable smartphone app that independently guides users through a high-resistance IMST program, a key step to translate IMST for widespread use and improving public health.
The research grant has been awarded to Klein Buendel and will be led by experts in cardiovascular health, aging and high-resistance IMST from the University of Colorado Boulder (Dr. Douglas Seals, Principal Investigator; Dr. Daniel Craighead, Co-Investigator) and digital health technology development and delivery from Klein Buendel (Dr. Kayla Nuss, Co-Investigator). The one-year project will collect feedback and preferences from potential users to guide app development and demonstrate feasibility of such a mobile app.
Aim 1: Perform iterative focus groups in midlife/older adults with above-normal SBP to collect potential-user information to identify needs and preferences for effective IMST app design.
Aim 2: Design the conceptual model and develop planned app components, including printed wireframes, storyboards, and clickable wireframes.
Aim 3: Conduct beta and usability testing on the clickable wireframes to show feasibility, acceptability, and potential for engagement, and finalize IMST app design.
Successful completion of this Phase I study will provide evidence to support programming and evaluating the full-scale IMST app in a subsequent Phase II project. If awarded, the Phase II project would directly compare the efficacy of at-home, self-guided IMST with the app vs. home BP monitoring alone (usual care control) for lowering SBP in a randomized clinical trial. The ultimate research goal of Phases I and II is to produce a commercially-ready mobile app for at-home implementation of high-resistance IMST, as a cost-effective lifestyle intervention for lowering SBP, decreasing disease risk, and reducing health care costs.
The research is supported by a grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health (HL167375; Dr. Douglas Seals, Principal Investigator).
Changes in patients’ family communication after offer of skin cancer genetic test
Melanoma is a serious preventable form of skin cancer. Genetic testing for skin cancer risk may help increase awareness. A team led by Dr. Jennifer Hay from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and including Dr David Buller from Klein Buendel, examined how an offer for testing for the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R) may have enhanced communication surrounding skin cancer within families. The research team presented a poster of their findings at the 44th Annual Sessions and Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in Phoenix, Arizona on April 26-29, 2023.
The study examined frequency targets (which family member) and topics of family communication around skin cancer at a 3-month follow-up within a New Mexico study that randomized primary care patients (N=600; 48% Hispanic) to MC1R test invitation or usual care (Aim 1). Frequency and targets were assessed on 4-point scales (“not at all” to “a lot”) asking participants how often they talked with family and with each target. Topics were assessed by asking participants whether they discussed a series of topics with family. The impact of usual care genetic test refusal and test results (average or higher risk feedback) on frequency targets and topics of family communication was assessed using ANOVAs and Chi-Square tests (Aim 2).
Aim 1 analysis showed that at the 3-month follow-up the average frequency of overall family communication was between “a little” and “some”. The most common communication targets were spouses and children; the most common topic was sun protection. Aim 2 analysis showed no significant differences in communication frequency. However, communication targets who received high-risk feedback reported greater communication with their spouse compared to those in usual care. Lastly, the study found that certain topics of communication such as “who had skin cancer in the family” and “your own risk of getting skin cancer” were discussed more by those who had testing (both receiving average and high-risk feedback) than by those in usual care or by test refusers.
The findings provide important insight into family communication about skin cancer. The results indicate greater discussion with certain people and about certain topics when individuals had undergone genetic testing highlighting the potential role that genetic testing can play in fostering family communication. Future research could provide deeper insight into why individuals talk to certain people and about certain topics more than others as well as examine how family communication affects decision-making regarding offers for cascade genetic testing or interpretation of results.
This research was supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute (CA181241; Dr. Jennifer Hay and Dr. Marianne Berwick, Multiple Principal Investigators). Authors in addition to Dr. Jennifer Hay include Ms. Caroline Salafia (poster presenter), Dr. Smita Banerjee, and Ms. Elizabeth Schofield from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; Dr. Andrew Sussman, Dr. Dolores Guest, and Dr. Keith Hunley from the University of New Mexico; Dr. Kimberly Kaphingst from the University of Utah; and Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel.
Physical Activity Research with Apps and Wearable Trackers
Klein Buendel Scientist, Dr. Kayla Nuss, was a presenter or co-author on four panels, posters, and presentations at the 44th Annual Sessions and Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in Phoenix, Arizona on April 26-29, 2023. The presentations highlighted research Dr. Nuss conducted as a Post-doctoral Fellow at the University of Victoria in Canada before joining Klein Buendel as a Scientist in 2022.
Presentation 1: Poster Session
“Examining the Effect of Daily Social Media Use of Physical Activity Behaviors: A Daily Diary Study”
Presenters: Ms. Rebecca Coulter, Dr. Sam Liu, and Dr. Kayla Nuss
Previous studies have assessed the effects of health-related social media use on physical activity; however the evidence remains mixed. Currently, little is known about how daily social media use influences daily physical activity behavior. Understanding the influence of social media use on physical activity behavior may help design future interventions. The objective of this study was to examine whether the daily consumption of health-related social media content is associated with daily physical activity behaviors. Results provided evidence that viewing health-related social media content can influence daily physical activity behavior – specifically , exercise intensity. The authors suggested that future studies should focus on within-person variations in behavior based on social media use.
Presentation 2: Symposium 1
“Contextual and Situational Motivation for Physical Activity in Wearable Activity Tracker Users: A Daily Diary Study”
Presenters: Ms. Rebecca Coulter, Dr. Sam Liu, and Dr. Kayla Nuss
Wearable activity trackers (WAT) were developed to support physical activity engagement but little is known about how WAT users are motivated for physical activity. The presenters have identified distinct motivational profiles among WAT users; but no study has assessed the relationship between contextual and situational motivation for physical activity. To evaluate this relationship, intensive daily survey methodology is needed. Understanding the relationship between contextual and situational motivation for physical activity is critical to improve the effectiveness of WAT. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the feasibility of collecting day-level situational motivation for physical activity using a customized mobile app made by a no-code app development platform; and 2) describe two levels of motivation (contextual and situational) in WAT users using the hierarchical model of motivation. The presenters hypothesized that they would identify distinct motivational profiles and that those profiles would predict differing levels of situational motivation. Collecting situational motivation for physical activity was feasible using a no-code mobile platform. WAT users vary in their contextual motivational profile for physical activity and these predict some types of situational motivation. They suggested that future research should further investigate physical activity motivation in WAT users to identify intervention opportunities.
Presentation 3: Symposium 2
“Implementing Mobile Health Interventions and Observational Studies Using a No-code App Development Platform”
Presenters: Dr. Denver Brown, Dr. Sam Liu, Dr. Kayla Nuss, and Ms. Amanda Willms
Mobile health (mHealth) technology holds tremendous potential to deliver behavior health interventions and understand human behavior. However, a challenge facing researchers when conducting mHealth research is the resources required to develop and maintain mHealth apps. Specifically, a no-code mHealth research app development platform may enable researchers with no previous software programming skills to create apps through a graphical user interface. In this symposium, presenters discussed how a no-code app development platform, was created and used to co-design and implement physical activity mHealth interventions and conduct longitudinal observational studies to understand physical activity behavior. The first presenter provided an overview of the no-code mHealth research platform and discussed its development and usability testing. The second presenter discussed how the platform was used to co-design adaptive mHealth physical activity interventions. Dr. Nuss discussed how the platform was used to implement a daily diary study to examine changes in situational motivation for physical activity based on contextual motivational profile in current wearable activity tracker users over a 14-day period. The final presenter discussed how the platform was used conduct a longitudinal feasibility study examining the influence that first-year roommates have on one another’s device-measured physical activity behavior during the transition to university which included weekly surveys to capture dyadic relations.
Presentation 4: Paper Session
“Reflecting on Physical Activity across Two Years of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Predictors if Intention-Behavior Profiles”
Presenter: Dr. Ryan Rhodes
Co-authors: Dr. Sam Liu, Dr. Kayla Nuss, and Dr. Wuyou Sui
The COVD-19 Pandemic has affected how many people engage in regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Understanding the correlates of various motivational and behavioral profiles is important to producing effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to predict current and dynamic (across two years of the COVID-19 Pandemic) intention and MVPA profiles using the multi-process action control (M-PAC) framework. Few participants increased MVPA across the pandemic and dynamic patterns of intention-MVPA profiles by pre-pandemic MVPA showed the presence of two at risk groups (relapsed non-intenders relapsed unsuccessful intenders) who have relapsed in MVPA. Collectively, the findings support the joint promotion of reflective regulatory and reflexive processes in the choice of behavior change techniques to promote post-pandemic MVPA intention and behavior.
Approximately five million cases of skin cancer are diagnosed among Americans at a cost nearing $9 billion annually. Indoor tanning (IT) is a risk factor for skin cancer. Restricting IT facilities, especially access by minors, has been the subject of state laws. More stringent restrictions on youth access (for example, bans by age vs. parental consent laws) appear to be associated with reduced IT by youth.
A team led by Dr. Carolyn Heckman from Rutgers University and Dr. David Buller from Klein presented a poster characterizing the IT policy landscape of U.S. states at the 44th Annual Sessions and Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine in Phoenix, Arizona on April 26-29, 2023. The poster was entitled “Comparison of the stringency of indoor tanning bills regarding minors that passed and failed in state legislatures over the last 30 years.”
The research team coded 107 state IT law documents and compared passed laws to failed bills (proposed but not voted on or proposed but voted down), using a validated coding tool that assessed the presence of age bans, parental consent/accompaniment, warnings, operator requirements, and enforcement. Component codes were scaled on 10-point stringency measures (0=no regulation, 10=very strong regulation). Component and total summed scores were calculated, with higher scores indicating more stringent IT restrictions.
Between 1991 and 2022, 46 states and the District of Columbia passed a law on IT, with 23 banning access to IT facilities by minors under age 18. By contrast, 60 bills on IT failed to pass in 31 states since 2008. However, stringency of laws is weak, overall, which may explain why recent research found low compliance of IT facilities with regulations and continued IT among minors. Failed bills without minor bans were less stringent than similar passed laws, on nearly all components. Failure may have presented advocates opportunities to improve stringency of subsequent bills and time to garner more support for IT restrictions. In fact, less stringent bills may have failed because they had less support from outside constituencies (for example, medical societies and public health advocates) and among legislators. To gain insight into this public health legislation process, we are interviewing key informants from states with recent policy activity.
This research was supported by a grant to Rutgers University from the National Cancer Institute (CA244370; Dr. Carolyn Heckman and Dr. David Buller, Multiple Principal Investigators). Co-authors included Ms. Julia Berteletti from Klein Buendel and Ms. Anna Mitarotondo from Rutgers University.
Prison population demographics are shifting such that many people will grow old and spend their final days in prison. Research evidence supports using peer caregivers to assist prison staff with providing supportive care. However, the training received by peer caregivers varies widely. Evidenced-based, accessible, and contextually relevant learning materials are needed to effectively prepare peer caregivers for their role.
A research team from The Penn State University Ross and Carol Nese College of Nursing and Klein Buendel have developed Just Care, a six-module e-learning program designed to augment the face-to-face training that is typically provided to peer caregivers. Small-scale usability testing of the Just Care program was conducted with twenty men and women, who are incarcerated, and ten staff members at one men’s and one women’s state prison in a southeastern state. Two rounds of usability tests were conducted via a video-conferencing platform. The results of the usability tests were recently presented at the annual conference of Academic Consortium on Criminal Justice Health (ACCJH) in Raleigh, North Carolina on April 13-14, 2023.
Most users, who were incarcerated, did activities without aid and no tasks or programming issues were identified that made it impossible to use the application as intended. However, a few usability and content issues were noted including: (a) some users did find the x-ray scanner activity challenging when trying to drag the scanner across the body image to reveal symptoms as death approaches; and (b) a few staff users noted that the returning citizens’ video testimonials in the Staff Module lacked racial diversity.
The System Usability (SUS) scores for each round respectively were 87.5 (incarcerated), 74.5 (staff); and 85.28 (incarcerated), 83.75 (staff). A SUS score of 68 is considered above average. Overall, both participant groups found Just Care easy to navigate with content that is interactive, useful, engaging, and relevant. Prison staff noted that Just Care raised awareness about peer caregivers’ need for training to help care for older people in prisons.
Next steps for the research team is to address the issues raised in the usability tests and prepare for large-scale usability testing to be conducted in state prisons in the summer and fall of 2023. This research was funded by an STTR grant to Klein Buendel from the National Institute on Aging [AG057239; Dr. Susan Loeb (Penn State) and Dr. Barbara Walkosz (Klein Buendel), Multiple Principal Investigators]. Collaborators on the ACCJH poster presentation also included Dr. Erin Kitt-Lewis, Mr. Sherif Olanrewaju, and Ms. Katherine Aiken from The Penn State University; and Ms. Amanda Brice and Mr. Steve Fullmer from Klein Buendel.
Effects of Motivational Interviewing and Wearable Fitness Trackers on Motivation and Physical Activity in Inactive Adults
Despite tremendous adoption of wearable fitness trackers by adults, it is unclear if they affect physical activity engagement or motivation. In a paper published in the Journal of Sports Sciences, Dr. Kayla Nuss, Klein Buendel Scientist, and her research collaborators reported on a study to examine the combined effects of motivational interviewing and wearable fitness trackers on motivation and physical activity in inactive adults.
The authors hypothesized that combining a wearable fitness tracker (such as a FitBit®) with an effective intervention (motivational interviewing), would positively influence both motivation and physical activity. To test the hypothesis, a 12-week randomized controlled trial was conducted with 40 adults who did not meet physical activity recommendations. The four comparison groups were: (1) physical activity education only (educational control) with 10 participants, (2) use of a wearable fitness tracker (WFT) with 10 participants, (3) bi-weekly motivational interviewing sessions with 10 participants, or (4) both motivational interviewing and WFT (WFT+) with 10 participants.
Motivation and physical activity were measured though an online survey and actigraphy (a method to objectively estimate physical activity) pre- and post-intervention. Both the WFT+ and motivational interviewing groups scored higher in autonomy, competence, and relatedness for physical activity compared to the control group, which is associated with higher quality, or more autonomous forms of motivation. Further, both groups did show improvements in autonomous forms of motivations (such as interest or enjoyment) and decreased controlled forms of motivation (such as pressure or reward). Detailed descriptions of the study’s methods, recruitment efforts, measures, data analysis, outcomes, and limitations can be found in the Journal of Sports Sciences publication.
The authors detected no changes in physical activity. High autonomous motivation at baseline predicted higher post-intervention physical activity in the WFT+ group, but predicted lower post-intervention physical activity in the WFT group. The results of the study suggest that motivational interviewing alone or with a wearable fitness tracker can improve basic psychological needs and autonomous forms of motivation for physical activity, but not physical activity participation. The authors conclude that individual differences in motivation at baseline may moderate the effect of a wearable fitness tracker on physical activity. The findings add to the growing body of evidence that wearable fitness trackers can have some positive effect on adult’s physical activity.
This research was supported by Colorado State University Department of Health and Exercise Science (Dr. Kayla Nuss, Project Director). Collaborating authors included Ms. Kristen Moore from the University of Southern California; Dr. Tasha Marchant from the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center; Dr. Jimikaye Beck Courtney from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill; and Ms. Kathryn Edwards, Dr. Julia Sharp, Dr. Tracy Nelson, and Dr. Kaigang Li from Colorado State University.
Robert Saltz, Ph.D. is a Senior Research Scientist at the Prevention Research Center within the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) in Berkeley, California. He received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Massachusetts. His research explores ways in which drinking context may influence the risk of subsequent injury or death. He has extensive experience researching “responsible beverage service” programs aimed at having bar and restaurant personnel intervene with patrons to reduce the risk of intoxication or driving while impaired.
Dr. Saltz collaborated with Dr. W. Gill Woodall and Dr. David Buller from Klein Buendel on the development, evaluation, and commercialization of the WayToServe®responsible beverage service training program in English (AA014982; W. Gill Woodall, Principal Investigator) and Spanish (MD010405; Dr. W. Gill Woodall, Principal Investigator), and the TrainToTend® responsible cannabis vendor training program (DA038933; Dr. David Buller, Principal Investigator).
Currently, Dr. Saltz is working with Dr. Buller and Dr. Woodall on two research projects. One is a PIRE project to assess the impact of California’s new mandatory responsible beverage service (RBS) training law intended to prevent alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes and other harms. The research is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Dr. Robert Saltz, Principal Investigator). The study is examining whether there is a significant reduction in single nighttime motor vehicle injury crashes after implementation of the mandatory responsible beverage service training law, controlling for other factors in California that may influence this outcome, and the national trend in fatal alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes. The training program that will be implemented is the WayToServe® online RBS training program developed and evaluated by PIRE, Klein Buendel, and the University of New Mexico.
The other is a Klein Buendel project developing and testing an in-service professional development component for alcohol servers trained by WayToServe to enhance its effectiveness. WayToServe Plus is intended to motivate servers to implement the responsible beverage service skills in the face of common barriers, provide support for responsible beverage service actions from a “community” of alcohol servers, and prevent natural degradation of skills over time. The in-service training is delivered through the WayToServe Facebook page that currently is followed by over 20,000 alcohol servers trained by WayToServe. This project is funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA029364; Dr. W. Gill Woodall and Dr. David Buller, Multiple Principal Investigators).
Implementation science, the study of methods and strategies that facilitate the uptake of evidence-based practices, is emerging as a framework to study the application of media literacy. Implementation science emerged in the public health field, and is just becoming known and applied in media literacy programs.
A research team led by Dr. Tessa Jolls from the Center for Media Literacy in California, and including Dr. Barbara Walkosz from Klein Buendel, conducted a panel discussion at the Global Media Education Summit held March 2-4, 2023 at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada. The panel was entitled, “Implementation Science: The Road to Scaling in a District Environment.” Two additional panelists included Dr. Marilyn Cohen from the University of Washington and Ms. Heather Van Benthuysen from the Chicago Public Schools.
The research team discussed the rising field of implementation science and presented an example underway in a U.S. school district. Relying on theories of change and rigorous evaluations of programming that exemplify these theories of change, the panelists described how implementation science provides a solid foundation for dissemination, scaling, and helping media literacy take its rightful place as a central educational offering. The panelists illustrated how implementation science works to strengthen and sustain media literacy in schools.
The Global Media Education Summit is convened by the UK’s Centre for Excellence in Media Practice, in collaboration with a leading media education space, in a different country each year. In 2023, the School of Communication and the Community Engaged Research Initiative at Simon Fraser University hosted the event, in partnership with the McLuhan Foundation. The Global Media Education Summit brings together an international network of researchers, educators, and practitioners across all aspects of media education, media and digital literacies, youth media production and media and technology in education. As the leading global showcase for research, pedagogy, and innovation, the Summit explores the changing currents across media education and media literacy communities around the world.